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Verner Heisenberg

Picture of Verner Heisenberg

Date of Birth: 05/11/1901

Age: 74

Place of birth: Wurzburg

Citizenship: Germany

Background

In 1932, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Werner Karl Heisenberg, German physicist, for his role in the creation of quantum mechanics - one of the most important achievements in the history of science.

Mechanics - a branch of physics that is associated with the basic laws that govern the motion of material objects. This is the most fundamental branch of physics, which, in turn, is the most fundamental izvseh Sciences. In the early twentieth century, it gradually became clear that the tax laws of mechanics are unable to describe the behavior of the smallest particles, such as atoms and their constituent elements. It was disappointing and puzzling, as adopted by the law worked perfectly when applied to macroscopic objects (ie objects much larger than individual atoms).

In 1925, Werner Heisenberg proposed a new formulation of physics, which in its basic concepts radically different from the classical Newtonian formulation. This new theory - after some modifications, produced by the followers of the Heisenberg - was a huge success and is now accepted as applicable to all physical systems of all types and sizes.

It can be shown mathematically that where only macroscopic systems involved, predictions of quantum mechanics differs from classical mechanics predictions very little. (For this reason, classical mechanics - that from a mathematical point of view is much simpler quantum -. Still suitable for most scientific calculations) However, where the scale of atoms involved, predictions of quantum mechanics is already very different from the classical one. Experiments show that in these cases the predictions are correct quantum mechanics.

One of the conclusions of the theory of Heisenberg - the famous "principle of variation" that the scientist formulated in 1927. This principle is one of the fundamental and comprehensive in all of science. The principle of variability shows some theoretical limits our ability to conduct scientific measurements. The meaning of this principle is huge. If the basic laws of physics prevent the scientist located even under ideal conditions, to obtain accurate data on the system, which he tries to explore, it is obvious that the future behavior of the system is impossible to predict. According to the uncertainty principle, no improvement of our instruments will never allow us to overcome these difficulties!

variability principle states that physics is only statistical predictions can make the very nature of things. (Scientists studying radioactivity, for example, can predict that because of a trillion radium atoms two million the next day will emit gamma rays. However, he is unable to predict whether or not behave the same way every single atom.) In practice, it is not very serious limitation. Where large dimensions involved, statistical methods can often provide a solid basis for action, but where the small dimensions involved, statistical predictions are not durable. In fact, in the case of small variability of the principle forces us to abandon our ideas exact physical causation. This represents the most profound change in the basis of the philosophy of science; so deep that such a great scientist like Einstein, once said: "God plays dice with the universe." However, it is essentially just a point of view that most modern physicists have to priznatYasno that from a theoretical point of view of the quantum theory, common, perhaps even more than the theory of relativity, the basic concept has changed our physical world. But the conclusions of this theory is not only philosophical.

Among the examples of their practical application have such modern devices as electron microscopes, lasers and transistors. Quantum theory also has wide application in nuclear physics, nuclear energy, astronomy and chemistry. It forms the basis of our understanding of spectroscopy, used in theoretical studies of such diverse topics as the properties of liquid helium, the internal structure of stars, ferromagnetism and radioactivity.

Werner Heisenberg was born in Germany in 1901. In 1923, the University of Munich, he received his doctorate in theoretical physics, and from 1924 to 1927 he worked in Copenhagen along with the great Danish physicist Niels Bohr. His first important work on quantum mechanics was published in 1925 and the formulation of the principle of variability appeared in 1927. Heisenberg died in 1976 at the age of seventy-four. He left a wife and seven children.