Date of Birth: 12/30/1371
The threat of attack from the Golden Horde forced V. I conclude in 1392 an alliance with the Lithuanian Prince. Vytautas, but the union was broken Lithuania, seized in 1403-04 Vyazma and Smolensk. In 1408 the Tatar khan Yedigei made a trip to Russia and went to Moscow. V. I, leaving the besieged Moscow, "the governor and a great multitude of the people", went to Kostroma to collect an army. Stubborn defense Muscovites forced Edigei, stood with the army a month under sinks, walls, retreat. Yedigei failed to beat the troops of the Grand Duke and near Kostroma. Devastated during the campaign it means ter. Russia, the Tatars forced Q. I once again pay tribute to the Horde, but did not achieve its main goal - to restore the power of the Golden Horde over Russia.
Materials of the Soviet Military Encyclopedia in 8 volumes, Volume 2.
In 1382, after the ruin of Moscow, Dmitry Donskoy Vasily sent to the Horde "compete with Mikhail Alexandrovich of Tver on the great reign." Tokhtamysh gave Michael the great reign, but held at Basil and demanded for him 8000 rubles ransom. Only in 1385 the young prince managed to escape from captivity. At first, he lived for some time in Moldova. From there he crept in 1386 in Lithuania, and here met with Vytautas, and promised to marry his daughter Sofia. After the death of his father Vasily received a bequest best and strongest cities: Vladimir, Kolomna, Kostroma and Pereyaslavl. At the very beginning of his reign he showed that he would remain faithful to the policy of his father and grandfather. A year after Ambassador Khan put him at the Grand Buffet in Vladimir, Basil went to the Horde and bought a shortcut on the principality of Nizhny Novgorod. On the way back, he planted here his deputies, and the Nizhny Novgorod Prince Boris Konstantinovich ordered to seize and hold under a strong guard. By the same label Basil Moore purchased, Gorodets, Meschera and Tarusa.
With Horde Basil tried to maintain a good relationship, but after in 1395 the Tatars were defeated Central Asian ruler Timur, with hanami stopped counting. In 1408 Yedigei Khan, who, like Mom, to dispose of all affairs of the Horde, decided to restore the power over Russia. Yedigei spread the rumor that there is a war in Lithuania, and the very army suddenly appeared near Moscow. Basil left in the city of his uncle Vladimir the Bold, and he left .in Kostroma. Tatars devastated Pereyaslavl. Rostov Dmitrov, Serpukhov, Vereya, Nizhny Novgorod, Gorodets and Wedge. Many people were killed, while others were killed by frosts and blizzards. Storm Kremlin Yedigei not become citizens and taking with 3000 rubles ransom, he went into the steppe. But after that Basil went to the Horde only in 1412. He was buried in Moscow, in the Archangel Cathedral.
All the kings of the world. Rossiya.600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999 g.
Vasily - he led. Vol. Vladimir and Moscow (1389 - 1425). Although VD, the son of Dmitry Donskoy, and was elevated to the throne by Ambassador Khan, but his reign, the grand duchy became finally the property of the Moscow princes. The preponderance of him above the other princes and over the old tribal claims to say in the very year of his accession to the throne. Prince Vladimir Andreyevich, his uncle, had quarreled with Basil, but was, however, to give up his nephew. He acknowledged the recent oldest himself undertook to go to war, to sit in the siege, where the VA orders. Veale. Prince found a strong support in the boyars. Boyar families began to settle in the Moscow principality since the second son of Ivan Kalita, Ivan Ivanovich. This sedentary squads spawned connection boyar families who had settled with the house Kalita, by which it was not profitable to Mosk. the Principality captured any other line of communication home. Vladimir; just as the benefits of nobility was the transfer of the throne from father to son, in which it was easier to carry out its hereditary politics. Magnifying the importance of the Moscow prince over the other princes, the Moscow boyars elevate themselves above the nobility of other principalities. The boyars in other principalities, seeing strengthening Moscow sought to serve as a strong and rich Prince of Moscow. That situation and the mood of nobility is due to a slight fall in the Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal principality. VD, knowing the mood of the Nizhny Novgorod boyars, bought the Horde shortcut to Nizhny Novgorod and Suzdal. Boris, Vol. Nizhny Novgorod, called together his boyars, he said to them: "Gentlemen and my brothers, my dear squad Remember kissing the cross, I do not give out my enemies." Boyars sworn in charge of their sworn lord flush, which, meanwhile, have long started negotiations with Moscow. When in Nizhny Novgorod were the Moscow boyars with the Tatar ambassadors, the same nobleman flush Boris said: "Sir Duke not hope for us (on the boyars), we have now is not yours and not with thee, and in thee." Fight was captured, with his wife and children; his few well-wishers sent to different cities. V. thus acquired except in Nizhny Novgorod, Gorodets, Meschera, Moore, Tarusa and within a few years and Suzdal. - In 1395 Eastern Russia threatened terrible trouble. Tamerlan, defeating Tokhtamysh, passed the Volga and mastered Yelets. Moscow was horrified; but were still alive companions Dimitri Donskoy on Kulikovo field. Moscow boyars not come to despair, assembled shelves and persuaded the VA to become the head of the militia to arms in hand to meet a formidable enemy. But Tamerlane, standing for two weeks in the land of Ryazan and ravaged the country in the upper reaches of the Don, retreated. The reason for the retreat east historians ascribe approximation autumn (the retreat began August 26). The pious legend narrates that the retreat of Tamerlane happened that day in Moscow brought the icon of Our Lady of Vladimir. Kostomarov very aptly pointed out the significance of this transfer: V. ordered to move the icon that Andrew Bogolyubskii secretly taken away from Kiev to his favorite city, Vladimir; now this icon served as the consecration of the championship and grandeur of Moscow over other Russian cities. But it is to subordinate his will Novgorod, were striving to. princes with Bogolyubsky, Vasily failed, although he, like his successors, is very much facilitated the struggle with the former contention Novgorod its suburbs, Pskov. VD in the fight against the old vechnikom leaned on the Metropolitan, the benefits of which have its predecessors, starting with Kalita, were able to unite the fate of Moscow and his home. In 1392, he arrived in the Novgorod Metropolitan Chiprian; He demanded that Novgorod in the old treated him in the affairs of the vessel, because shortly before the Novgorod veche decided on the court to not to go to Metropolitan. Veche Metropolitan sentence was refused. B. Vol. stood up for the Metropolitan, Novgorod was denied to him. It came to the massacres. In 1393 Torzhok killed in Moscow wishers; Grand Duke, taking Torzhok ordered to find the perpetrators, and 70 people were brought to Moscow a painful punishment quartering. Novgorod, fearing for their Dvina trade gave way and sent the Metropolitan Judicial Charter. In 1396 hostilities were resumed. B. Duke wanted to capture the Dvina land; first he had that, but in 1398 had to abandon the Dvina lands, Vologda, Novgorod and other possessions. In 1404 again appeared hostile relations. Novgorod. Archbishop John three years was held in Moscow in prison, but V. Prince, having made peace with Novgorod, freed John and captured this year Novgorod boyars. Accelerate reconciliation facilitated fear plans Vytautas in. a. the Lithuanian, who captured Smolensk, obviously trying to capture with Novgorod and Pskov. Vytautas, despite the relationship with Basil, who was married to his daughter; Sophia Vitovtovna was formidable enemy. Owning Smolensk and south-western Russian principalities, no wonder he held the title lead. Vol. Lithuanian and Russian; to the east of his kingdom extended to the Oka. Related attitude softened struggle; but Vytautas was not one of those people who prefer the entire family ties. Pskov and Novgorod asked for help in. Prince of Moscow. Three times converge father-in-law and and did not battle it was, every time it ended up dating and the world: in 1406 near Krapivny, in 1407 at Vyazma, and in 1408 on the banks of the river. Ugra. After the peace in the district. Ugra was no longer clash with Basil Vytautas. For Basil was a great happiness that the Horde, after the invasion of Tamerlane, confusion reigned for 12 years, which gave Moscow an opportunity to act freely in relation to Lithuania. At this time, Treasury led. Vol. Moscow highly enriched: it is to the Horde, and he did not go and did not send; the demand for money answered that he had no money, and yet constantly collecting money for the Horde out. All this money remained in the treasury of the Grand. But the Horde changed. when power passed into the hands of Edigeya nobleman who, like Mom, and began to dispose of the Khans, and Horde. Edigey wanted to get VA to obey, but did not dare to openly attack on Moscow and has resorted to a ruse. In 1408, he made known to V. that goes to Lithuania, and he turned to Moscow. V. fled to Kostroma, leaving his uncle, Vladimir Andreevich to defend the capital. Edigey could not take Moscow, but some Tartar troops devastated Pereslavl, Rostov, Dmitrov, Serpukhov, Vereya, Nizhny Novgorod, Gorodets, Klin. Edigey, received the news that the Horde is restless, retreated, ruined on the way back Ryazan. But the invasion did not shake Edigeya importance Moscow. In 1412 VD went to the Horde to pay homage to Gela-Ledin (Green-Sultan our chronicles), about the gifts they label exiled princes of Nizhny Novgorod. In 1399, he died Tver, Grand Duke Michael, who gave an oath of the children, grandchildren and nephews not to seek nor Moscow or Novgorod. Grand Prince of Ryazan pledged to honor the VA, as the oldest brother. B. Brothers gave the same record, except George. In the reign of Basil important event happened in the history of the church, which had a political significance: the death of Cyprian in 1406, Metropolitan was raised Greek Photios, knew nothing about Russian relations. His arrogant attitude towards Vytautas gave the latter an excuse to execute a long-standing idea: he called all Russian bishops, who in 1425 set in the Metropolitan of Kiev Bulgarian Gregory Tsamblak. Moscow`s influence in the southern Russia has been weakened. In the reign of Vladimir Russia attended and terrible calamity - plague, and a three-year famine. .. About the main element in Moscow, ie of boyars, in the reign of VD, there is still reading the letter to him Edigeya, which indicates to replace the older generation of the boyars new generation; first heard of the Tatars, the second was hostile to them. The first, of course, praised Edigeya. From boyar families in the first place was born Boyar Theodore Cats and sons, ancestors of the Romanovs; then born Ivan radionovich kneading, born Sonya, chelyadnins, Vsevolozhsk, Pleshcheeva, nephews Metropolitan Alexei, Zherebtsova.
F. Brockhaus, IA Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary.