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Vasiliy Golovnin

Picture of Vasiliy Golovnin

Date of Birth: 08/04/1776

Age: 55

Place of birth: a. Gulynki

Citizenship: Russia

Background

VM Golovnin born April 8, 1776 in a poor noble family. Ten years, he lost his parents. When Golovkin was thirteen, his close relatives defined in the Sea Cadet Corps. In 1790 Golovnin was promoted to midshipmen and assigned to the ship, "Do not touch me." During the Russian-Swedish war of 1788 - 1790`s, he participated in two battles and for showing courage and bravery was awarded the gold medal.

Two years later Golovnin successfully completed the theoretical training course. According to the then existing order, persons who have not attained the age of seventeen, could not be released from the body to the rank of officer. Therefore Golovnin was retained by the body for another year. This year has not passed for him in vain. Golovnin take a more in-depth study of literature, history, physics, natural history, English, French and Swedish.

In the first years after the end of the body, he participated in the voyages of the Kronstadt fleet in the North Sea and to the shores of England.

In 1799 Golovnin was promoted to lieutenant, and in 1802, among the most capable and trained naval officers was Therefore

Slana, and in England to get acquainted with the organization and tactics of the English oflota.

On his return, in 1806, Golovnin was appointed commander of the sloop "Diana", is sent to the circumnavigation to the Russian possessions in North America for the purpose of hydrographic surveys in the Pacific. Along the way, "Diana", "Neva" was supposed to accompany the ship of the Russian-American company, but the preparation of the "Diana" for swimming too long, and "Neva" went on a long journey alone.

The crew of "Diana" was carefully chosen personally Golovnin. His assistant he chose Lieutenant-Commander P. Ricord, with which it is linked to the end of life sincere, sincere friendship.

Admiralty Department supplied Golovnin special instructions containing the basic methods of scientific research. The commander of "Diana" were instructed to make detailed descriptions of lands and islands that are not marked on the map, and determine their coordinates, perform a thorough soundings to collect data on the sea and on the prevailing winds. Also, if you happen to ... "noted vessel built in a special way for the intentions kakogo-nibud Especially, marine procedure observed in the team and the content of the ministers, the new tool kakoy-nibud or consume with better success than we have," - this also not be ignored. While navigating in the vicinity of Russian Far Eastern possessions were asked to identify the possibility of permanent and navigation, to collect information about the climate and the economy of those places, "koi can serve as a haven." Finally, instructions obliged to collect information related to the development of naval warfare in the countries visited. It was emphasized that the interest may be not only the data directly related to marine art, but also all new, useful, interesting, serving to spread "human knowledge in all parts."

In connection with all these instructions Admiralty Department paid particular attention to the careful logging. "The use of any journey, - stated in the instructions - is the observation of everything that happens to see new and useful. For those comments should you keep a journal of your journey."

Thus, before the crew of "Diana" we were very serious problem.

25 July 1807 "Diana" weighed anchor. Soon rose gusty, head wind storm, lasted two days, "Diana". Sloop successfully weathered the storm. His crew worked smoothly and clearly. "This event showed me that our sailors is very agile and are serviceable in their craft" - later he recalled Golovnin. His faith in the crew strengthened even more. He had no doubt that with such sailors can overcome all the difficulties that may be encountered in a long voyage.

August 4 "Diana" was held by the Danish island of Bornholm and the early morning of 7 August anchored in the Copenhagen raid.

Denmark`s capital was at that time besieged by the British land forces and navy. The cause of the fighting was that England, who fought with France, sought to take away the Danish fleet, as she feared that Napoleon used it to their advantage. Denmark, preserve neutrality in this war, rejected the claims of England. Then the British without declaring war attacked Copenhagen. Danes determination to defend their independence and their heroic struggle against the overwhelming forces of the British army and navy caused admiration Golovnin.

January 2, 1808 "Diana" dropped anchor in the harbor of St. Catherine Brazilian island. So far, the sloop repair and Food of Georgia, Golovnin determined the geographical coordinates of the island and made a detailed description of the harbor and its fortifications. February 29 "Diana" took a course to the east. West wind favored swimming.

April 18, 1808 Russian sailors saw the Cape of Good Hope, and two days later, "Diana" entered the bay Simonstaun in the Cape Colony, owned by the British. Here the commander of the British fleet Golovkin announced the beginning of the war between Russia and England. The war began as a result of Russia`s accession in accordance with Treaty of Tilsit (1807) to Napoleon`s France, carried out the continental blockade of England. The British began fighting on the Russian communications in the Baltic, Barents Sea, the Mediterranean and the Adriatic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. They seized the Russian ships with valuable cargo.

Involuntary stay at the Cape of Good Hope during the year Golovnin used for scientific research. It was an accurate description of the Cape and studied the climate, flora, fauna, economy, way of life and customs of the local population. Finally Golovnin "resolved without losing the first convenient opportunity, to take command of the entrusted me to threaten us with the extreme, to leave the bay and sail directly to Kamchatka." When this solution helped Golovkin diligent study of wind direction near the coast and in the open ocean. He waited until the start heavy wind storm and told him to put the sails, "Diana" weighed anchor. Immediately, with the flagship of the British followed the order of the delay of the sloop, but the British ships were ready to sail, and "Diana" safely out to sea and headed for Kamchatka.

The idea Golovnin succeeded brilliantly because "officers, cadets, non-commissioned officers and privates - all working to one aloft on Mars ..."

September 23 at 12 am before the eyes of Russian sailors opened the Kamchatka Peninsula. Having experienced many hardships, overcome many difficulties, the crew of "Diana" has successfully reached his native land. Two days later the sloop entered the harbor of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. There Golovnin received the news of his award two Orders: Military Order of St George "For eighteen marine campaigns" and the Order of St. Vladimir "For prosperous committing arduous journey."

Rest after a long voyage was not long.

In the early days of the Kamchatka produced on Golovnin unfavorable impression. But soon it dissipated. Golovnin appreciated the wealth of the Kamchatka Territory and with his characteristic energy and passion engaged in his study. During his stay on the Peninsula he managed to collect a wealth of material about the flora and fauna of the region, on the nationalities inhabiting it, their life and customs. In contrast to many Western travelers Golovnin treated the local people with great warmth. His outraged abuse royal officials brutally oppressed and robbed local residents.

Golovnin collected valuable materials that speak of the positive role of the Russian people, which brought to Kamchatka higher culture, helped the local people to learn agriculture and livestock. In his notes Golovnin noted that Kamchadals easily perceived Russian customs.

Activities Golovnin not limited to the study of the Kamchatka Peninsula. He carefully studied the material collected by his predecessors for the Study of the North Pacific. In Petropavlovsk he was lucky to get a map of the Bering and Okhotsk seas, the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, a general map of the Russian Empire, magazines Alexei Chirikov, Vitus Bering, Stepan Krasheninnikov, Gregory Shelikhov, La Perouse, Cook and other scientists and explorers. In addition, he was able to get maps and Kruzenshtern Lisyansky th, sent them to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.

In the spring of 1810 Golovnin sailed to American shores for the delivery of food to the residents of the settlements of the Russian-American Company.

The following year, Golovkin was instructed to make an inventory of the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, the coast of the Tatar (Primorye) to the Uda river, cape Khabarova and Shantar islands and astronomically to determine their position. In carrying out this task, Golovnin for months he investigated a number of islands of the Kuril chain.

"The chain or ridge of islands lying between the southern cape of Kamchatka and Japan, the Kuril Islands, to name Russian - wrote Guo lovnin - for seeing to the Kamchatka coast smoking On these islands hill, they called them the Kurils, from the word smokers, and from and most of the island got its name; the natural inhabitants of the add in their own language do not know any name for the name of the whole ridge in general, but they have only their own names for each island in particular. "

A study of the Kuril Islands was very difficult. Persistent fog, steep and rocky shores, the lack of comfortable, sheltered from the wind anchorage often deprived sailors to penetrate into the depths of a particular island. However Golovnin and his companions successfully committed difficult transition from Kronstadt to Kamchatka, for carry out their cases were ready for any hardships.

The research results VM Golovkin were very significant. He made an accurate map of the Kuril Islands, adding information about them collected by other Russian explorers and scientists.

Constant winds and thick fog are not allowed to "Diana" approach to the shore. More than two weeks sloop maneuvered near the islands of Iturup, Kunashir and Shikotan. Finally, in the evening 4 July 1811 "Diana" came to a long spit constituting the eastern side of the harbor of the island of Kunashir, and became anchored.

A few days later, when the sloop approached the shore, Golovnin with seven sailors to the island. The Japanese welcomed him with feigned cordiality, invited to the castle, and when the unsuspecting Golovnin and his companions entered it, the Japanese suddenly attacked the unarmed Russian sailors and captured them. Most Golovkin resented deceit and treachery Japanese. "From a pure heart and wishes them well I went to him in the castle, as a friend of them, and now they do to us. I am less tortured to - he wrote later in his" Memoirs "- if I was the cause of only my own unhappiness, but seven others also suffer from subordinates me. "

Soon the Russian sailors were transferred to the island of Kunashir in Jaco, the Date, Hokkaido and imprisoned. Golovkin was put in a separate dark and damp cell.

But even in these conditions Golovnin did not stop his scientific studies. All that he had observed during a walk and learned from conversations with the guards, Golovnin are recorded in its original "Journal" of yarn facilitates memorizing it. Each remarkable event, which Golovkin managed to learn in this "magazine" corresponded to a string of a certain color. (Threads pull out of the cuffs, lining uniform or scarf). These threads artfully entwined in a knot. Only because of this "diary" Golovnin subsequently wrote his remarkable work "Notes Fleet Captain Golovnin about the adventures of his imprisoned by the Japanese in 1811, 1812 and 1813", published in 1818 and subsequently translated into almost all European languages. The book contains extremely valuable information about the manners and customs of the Japanese about their culture. It was the first comprehensive book on Japan. According to the clarity and brilliance of presentation "Notes" are among the best works of Russian literature.

Golovnin and his companions decided to flee. With great difficulty the sailors managed to get old, rusty chisel with which a fortress was made tunnel, April 24 prisoners escaped into the wild, but were soon caught.

Only in 1813, when the hearing of the fame of the Russian army which defeated the hordes of Napoleon, reached Japan, it became possible to release our brave captain. October 1, 1813, after more than two years in captivity Golovnin and his comrades were released into the wild.

In 1814 Golovnin returned to St. Petersburg and was appointed a full member of the State Department and the Admiralty in the year began to prepare for a new circumnavigation, this time on the sloop "Kamchatka". He was commissioned to deliver the goods to Kamchatka, then define the astronomical coordinates of the island on which this work has not yet been made, and to make the description of the northwest coast of America from 60 to 63