Date of Birth: 10/20/1480
Vannochcho Biringuccio (Italian Vannoccio Biringuccio.) (October 20, 1480, Siena - April 30, 1539, Rome) - Italian alchemist and metallurgist architect. For a long time he studied alchemy, metallurgy and foundry in Italy, the Czech Republic and Austria. Some time was the director of the mint in Siena, but in 1515 for a change in the composition of the coin alloy was expelled from the city. Being well-known throughout Europe, foundry master, engaged in the manufacture of military equipment in the Florentine republic. Here in 1529 Biringuccio cast one of the largest for togovremeni guns weighing over 6 m and 6.7 m in 1531 - 1535 again resided in Siena.; in later years he served as chief caster Vatican.
Biringuccio was one of the first to notice an increase in weight of metals during their calcination in air (calcination, t. E. Conversion to "lime"). The main scientific works Biringuccio became its a ten-work "Pirotehniya" (Rurotechnia, from the Greek - "fire" and "art", "craft";. Pirotehniya - description of crafts related to the use of fire), which addressed many of the issues of chemical engineering since XVI century. In this work Biringuccio brought a lot of important practical information on metallurgy, mining and foundry, receptions assay, pottery and glass industries, etc. He described in detail the melting furnaces, blowers fur, a variety of mechanisms, methods and operations used in the production of large castings - cannons and bells, considered ways of gold and silver, described the amalgamation technique and method of preparation of nitric acid. The last volume of the book is devoted to the preparation of gunpowder and various pyrotechnic compositions.
Some place (ninth book) was given in the "Pirotehnii" and the presentation of alchemical ideas; it Biringuccio sometimes quite sharply responds about alchemists, charlatans calling them. Biringuccio itself when considering the processes clearly prefers to be based on empirical data, rather than on the alchemical theories.
"Pirotehniya" Biringuccio become unique for its time and technical encyclopedia acquired wide recognition throughout Europe.