Date of Birth: 08/13/1930
Place of birth: Matagalpa
Tomas Borge Martinez was born on August 13, 1930 in the city of Matagalpa, Nicaragua, even when there was a guerrilla war by General Augusto Cesar Sandino against the intervention of the US and the corrupt government of the country. His father fought in the ranks of the army of Sandino against the Americans and Borge took ideas from his childhood struggle. In 1943, at the age of 13 years he was involved in revolutionary activities in 1946, 16 years, he edited the newspaper "Espartako" directed against the regime of General Anastasio Somoza Garcia. However, Borge received his primary education and entered the law faculty of the Autonomous University of Nicaragua (Department of Leon).
Meeting with Carlos Fonseca
Entering in 1954 in Leon University, Borge initially made friends with a group of students from wealthy families, who later became a newspaper editor and bankers, and, in spite of the rebellious youth, was far from socialist ideas. But in 1955 at the University of Tomas Borge met his compatriot, also a native of Matagalpa, Carlos Fonseca. Fonseca, Borge was younger by six years, but the latter came under his influence, and all life was under the spell of his personality. As Borge recalled, in those years, they were in the courtyard under the orange tree for the first time read "Utopia" of Thomas More and John Steinbeck`s works. Then, in the library of the poet Samuel Mesa, they found the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and fascinated by them began to collect works of Lenin, who in those years went by only Nicaragua in the lists.
The revolutionary activity
In 1956, Borge became a member of the Marxist-led Fonseca first student circle the country. After the murder of Rigoberto Lopez Perez President Anastasio Somoza in September 1956, Tomas Borge was arrested and placed in jail, then transferred under indefinite house arrest. In 1957, he participates in an organized Fonseca nationwide student strike. This Borge did not specify in his memoirs, he took in those years, as well as Carlos Fonseca, the Communist Party of Nicaragua, nosivshuyu name Nicaraguan Socialist Party. In 1959, Fonseca and Borge, who fled house arrest iz-pod, emigrating to Costa Rica and there create movement "Nicaraguan revolutionary youth."
After the victory of the Cuban Revolution Fonseca, Borge and their comrades have become staunch supporters of the armed struggle against the regime of family -OPERATION Somoza. Borge claimed that in the preparation of the guerrilla unit "Rigoberto Lopez Perez," during which the defeat of June 24, 1959 was seriously injured Carlos Fonseca, he participated Ernesto Che Guevara. At the time of the defeat of the detachment Borge was in San Jose, and receiving false news of the death of Fonseca, cried together with Silvio Mayorga in the middle of the cafe. However, soon returned alive Fonseca with Borge and Mayorga went to Cuba, where he has made the acquaintance of Che Guevara and Tamara Bunke.
Base FSLN and the first failure (1960-1967)
Silvio Mayorga brought to Cuba a group of young Nicaraguan immigrants from Venezuela, which became the basis for a future FSLN guerrilla army. Meanwhile, Fonseca went to Honduras to create conditions for the arrival of the rebel group. Soon Borge and Mayorga were sent after him.
July 23, 1961 in Tegucigalpa Carlos Fonseca, Tomas Borge and Silvio Mayorga founded the Sandinista Front for National Liberation of Nicaragua. guerrilla base on Honduran territory near the Patuca River, and in 1962 the forces of the front numbered 60 people were created. In 1963, the FSLN began a guerrilla war in the territory of Nicaragua, but was defeated. Then Borge by Victor Tirado returned to Nicaragua for illegal work and began to form underground cells.
The guerrilla struggle (1967-1976)
In 1965 - 1966 years of Thomas Borge was the director of the Sandinista newspaper "The Republican mobilization" . Only in 1967, the front second attempt to organize a guerrilla war: Carlos Fonseca, Tomas Borge and other leaders of the FSLN go to the mountains Pankasana. However, this attempt fails. In 1969, after the losses incurred, made reorganization of the National Leadership of the FSLN, which includes Thomas Borge, Humberto Ortega and others, and Fonseca is elected to the post of Secretary General. In January of the same year Thomas Borge and Henry Ruiz was arrested for smuggling weapons to the border authorities of Costa Rica. However, they do not give Nicaraguan authorities and deported to Colombia. A few years Borge lived in exile in Cuba and Peru, the opportunity to visit the base of the PLO in Lebanon. Eventually he moved from Mexico to Nicaragua and joined the forces of the FSLN simple fighter. In 1973, after heavy loss to Tomas Borge, Bayardo Arce et al. Goes home front command.
Arrest and prison (1976-1978)
February 4, 1976 Tomas Borge seized by the authorities in Managua right in front of TV cameras and journalists sent to prison, where tortured. The arrest may have saved the life of Tomas Borge, as in 1976 - 1977 years, government forces have destroyed almost all the leaders of the FSLN led KarlosomFonsekoy. In prison Borge wrote a book of memories of Fonseca, entitled "Carlos, dawn is not only a dream" (in 1980, after the victory of the revolution, it was released in Managua publishing