Sigismund Herberstein - Baron, a German diplomat. As part of the imperial embassies visited Denmark, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Spain, the Italian state, Turkey, Poland, Hungary, the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Prolong the truce between the Russian state and Poland (1526). In 1549 he published the book "Notes on Muscovite Affairs". Half a century Sigismund Herberstein faithfully served four kings (the four Habsburg - Maximilian I, Charles the V, Ferdinand I and Maximilian II), as reported by the inscription carved on his tombstone. He was born in 1486 in the castle WIPP (now Vipava) in Styria. Here in the mountains of Slavic Krajina, Sigismund Herberstein spent his childhood, which was the basis for one of the researchers call it "the German border." Communication with the indigenous population - the Slavs - left an imprint on the formation of a well-known son of an impoverished, but a very old family of German Styria. Unlike most of his peers, Herberstein already in adolescence, along with Latin and taught Slovene than evoked ridicule of their peers. Future diplomat acquainted with the customs, beliefs and life of the Slavic community. In 1499 he entered the University of Vienna, booming era. Here, in particular, he taught Conrad Tseltis, introducing humanistic direction in geography. Herberstein received a bachelor`s degree, almost shameful for the young people of noble birth. In 20 years, the future diplomat left the university to provide for his family, the rest of his care. In 1506 he entered the service of the Habsburgs. Herberstein participated in the campaign against Hungary, attempted Maximilian, then still bore the title of King of Rome, for the marriage of one of his grandchildren - Ferdinand and Anna, the daughter of Hungarian King Vladislav Jagiello. Herberstein distinguished himself in several battles. During the war with Hungary for the successful delivery of supplies to the besieged fortress Maran and defeat the enemy unit during the regular raids against the Venetians Herberstein awarded knighted by the Maximilian, razglyadevshy a young immigrants from Styria, not only a brave warrior, but also a reasonable and prudent policy (1508 ). Knight at the behest of the King of Rome became a diplomat. Since 1515 Herberstein became a member of the Imperial Council and in 1516 he received a delicate mission - to convince the Danish King Christian II of the need to be faithful to his wife Isabella - granddaughter of Maximilian I, and sister of the future emperor, and while the Duke of Burgundy Charles - and terminate the relationship with his daughter Sigbrid innkeeper, certain Diveke. King was already known for cruelty and imbalance. Herberstein managed to get an audience with the king, but on this success to the diplomat over. After receiving a negative response, Herberstein nevertheless won the favor of Christian II. The failure of the mission did not influence the future career Herberstein. Following the instructions exactly, hardness, intelligent persistence and correctness shown by the Ambassador of Denmark, made an impression at the court. A few months later in Vienna Herberstein received credentials of Ambassador Emperor Muscovy. Without going into detail on the complex international situation of the 20-ies of the XVI century, we note that the trip Herberstein has been one of the passages confusing game of the Habsburgs trying to simultaneously prevent the rapprochement between Moscow and Denmark, the Livonian Order and France, as well as to create a barrier to the north-east against Turkish hordes who invaded the Balkans and threatened the Danube empire. These tasks were extremely difficult and impracticable. At the end of 1516 from Vienna to Vilna and Moscow sent an embassy of Baron Sigismund Herberstein. The first part of his difficult mission is completed successfully. Herberstein presented the Polish king his bride Princess Bon, which is absolutely fascinated him. Sigismund presented the imperial ambassador its program of peaceful settlement of relations with Russia. Precondition was the return of the Grand Duchy of Smolensk. Now it was to persuade you to accept this conditions
Elijah III, and Herberstein would consider their trip a brilliant triumph. April 18, he arrived in Moscow. And here the imperial ambassador had arranged a solemn meeting. April 22, negotiations began. To their main theme (the conclusion of peace with Lithuania and alliance against the Turks) Herberstein approached gradually. His speech, he began with that very vividly described the threat posed by the "Christian world" Turks. Baron Sigismund said that the Turkish king defeated "of Great Sultan, Damascus and Erusalim and all his state power took." The only escape from imminent disaster - the connection and harmony between the Christian powers. Herberstein tried to instill Vasili III thought that the war with Turkey - the main task, which is to excite Russian government. But perhaps he is, indeed, Maximilian, was unaware that the idea to involve Russia in the war with Turkey (which for Moscow represents a potential ally, not an enemy) was utopian. Already during his stay Herberstein in Moscow (April 22) to the Turkish Sultan I went messenger Stepanov with an offer of peace and friendship. Prior to Constantinople he never reached: the Don was killed Tatars. Scary painting "Turkish danger", drawn Herberstein, had an impact on Moscow court quite the opposite of what is expected in the imperial experienced diplomat. Grand Prince Vasily III and his entourage were once again convinced of the need to maintain friendly relations with the Porte. Russian diplomats have left the imperial ambassador the illusion of Russia for the "edinachestvo" other "Christian powers" to fight "the enemies of Christianity." It was absolutely necessary in order to achieve its goal - to use mediation at the conclusion of the imperial profitable and lasting peace in the Great Duchy of Lithuania. The case proved difficult. Vasily III wanted the peace talks were held in Moscow, and this is what is wanted Sigismund. For details of where negotiating Russian government allowed his nephew Hans von Herberstein Turnu depart April 26 to the court of the Polish king. Returning July 14 in Moscow, he said that Sigismund agreed to send their ambassadors only Russian-Lithuanian border. Vasily III is not satisfied. Negotiations thus deadlocked even before starting. The stumbling block was the "procedural" question. Hans von Thurn was again sent to Lithuania. He gave the king that Herberstein would take his mediation mission completed, if he did not agree that the negotiations took place in Moscow. Under pressure from the imperial diplomat Sigismund accepted this condition. Lithuanian ambassadors Ian Shield and Bogush arrived in Moscow on October 3, 1517. The mediator in the negotiations played Herberstein. Moscow sovereign solemnly declared that he was ready to come to terms with Sigismund for his "brother" Maximilian and due to "hand besermenskaya not vysilasya and sovereigns would besermenskie forward not shirilis and to Christian rulers over besermenstvom hand vysilasya and the state to Christian shirilis" . This vague wording of "besermenskih sovereigns" generally gave Russian diplomats to interpret it as profitable for them, and also gave the impression that Russia is ready to join the anti-Turkish league. It is much more difficult to have to both sides, when it was necessary to move from declarations to the consideration of the specific conditions of the world. And Russian and Lithuanian diplomats began bargaining with the "request". Vasily III said that Sigismund "unrighteousness" keeps "paternal" Russian princes - Kiev, Polotsk and Vitebsk. Russian Justice claims was in fact recognized by the 1514 agreement with the Russian Empire, and when Russian diplomats have referred to this treaty, Herberstein had no choice but to declare that the contract is "not on the dictates of our sovereign." For its part, the Lithuanian ambassadors said that they anciently belongs not only to Smolensk, and Novgorod, Pskov, and Vyazma Siverschyna. The conversation, in a word, was conducted in such a variety of languages, that of Understanding could not be considered. To clarify, but not eased the situation of the position taken by Herberstein. He called for the transfer of Smolensk Lithuania, citing the example of Maximilian, who gave Verona its citizens. But to abandon the old Russian town, connected with so much labor, Moscow is not going to. Do not objecting in principle to continue the negotiations, diplomats from Moscow strongly rejected suggestions Herberstein. He had no choice but to leave Moscow. November 22, he and Moscow etc.
ass clerk VS Plemyannikova served to the imperial court. The result of the first mission to Moscow Herberstein did not bring the desired result. Nevertheless, relations with the Muscovite empire, interrupted after the Congress of Vienna, have been renewed. In the autumn of that year, the Austrian ambassador returned to Vienna. Apparently, here in the capital of the empire, in the circle of Viennese humanists, listen to his stories about the distant and unusual Muscovy at Herberstein first had the idea to write a book about his journey. An important role could play and diaries, which led Herberstein while traveling. But it took many years before this idea was realized. In the 20-30-ies of the XVI century Herberstein was one of the leaders of the delegation sent to the invitation of Charles V to the throne of the empire; he headed the embassy in the Balkans, was negotiating with the Venetian doge, the Turkish Sultan, visited almost all the countries of continental Europe. And in 1526 Herberstein was again sent to Muscovy, for the same purpose as that for the first time. The second embassy proved more successful than the first. August 29, 1526 in a battle with the Turks at Mohacs died Hungarian King Louis (Lajos II) Jagiellon. At the Jagiellonian position of the central government weakened. Even the threat of Ottoman invasion and the grand march of the Ottomans at Belgrade in 1521 could lead to increased centralization trends. Five years later, in 1526, took a new campaign, which resulted in Hungary became the prey of a powerful neighbor. Hungarian events closely related to the growth of the Turkish threat, as well as the energetic pressure of imperial and Polish diplomacy compelled Sigismund to seek a lasting peace with Russia: in fact in 1527, ended a five-year Russian-Lithuanian truce; it was necessary to think about the future. October 14 in Mozhaisk, where at that time was "fun to" Vasily III of, profits Lithuanian representatives - Polotsk governor Peter S. Intestine and podekarby Bogush. Here in the presence of Herberstein negotiations began. Lithuanian representatives a prerequisite to enter into the world put cession of Smolensk. Russian side on this categorically disagreed. Then Gut Bogush and went on to conclude a new, now six years, a truce. With this Lithuanian embassy and left Mozhaysk. Together with him in November 1526 from the Russian left and Herberstein. February 28, 1527 Sigismund I signed the contract, extended for six years (from 25 December 1526 on 25 December 1532) the truce between Lithuania and Russia. Plans for church union and anti-Turkish projects empires were tactful, but at the same time strongly rejected by Russian diplomats. The death of Louis Jagiello extremely complicated situation in Eastern Europe and led to the long struggle of the empire and the other powers of the Hungarian crown. November 13 the same year, the Diet in Feyervare elected king of Hungary Janos Transylvanian governor Zapolyai. But almost at the same time (16 December), a group of Hungarian magnates in Bratislava proclaimed the king`s brother Emperor Charles V Ferdinand I of Bohemia (who was married to the sister of the deceased king Lajos II). Beginning of a long internecine struggle between supporters of the two kings. She immediately complicated by the rivalry of Charles V (who supported Ferdinand) and the Polish gentry, hot Janos Zapolyai supporters, enjoyed the patronage of the Turkish sultan. The very same Polish King Sigismund adhered to a policy of neutrality rather benevolent towards Ferdinand. The question "Who is to blame?" Europe gave different and contradictory answers. Apparently, the Habsburgs distributed version of that responsibility for the defeat of Mohacs must carry one of the largest Hungarian magnates - Janos Zapolyai. Following the imperial diplomats probably also evaluated the role Janos Zapolyai and Russia. Judging by the writings of Herberstein, the Austrian Archduchy blame for the defeat at Mohacs pinned not only on Janos Zapolyai. The same respondent believed Sigismund I, the Polish King and Grand Duke of Lithuania, do not come to the aid of his nephew. The opposite opinion was expressed by the king at the reception of the Austrian ambassador Herberstein January 28, 1527. All the misery and the quarrel between the Christian sovereigns, according to him, are caused by those who dream of capturing other countries, led by hopes of foreign lands, they "give away all of Christianity" to pillage the enemy. Undoubtedly, Sigismund I hinted at this on the sovereign who sent him Herberstein - the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand. So, three points of view - to blame Janos Zapolyai, King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and finally the Habsburgs. Three culprit lesion in Mohacs - the three main forces acting on the territory of Hungary, excluding ports in the period from 1526 to 1549. Their struggle for the division of Hungary is flared, then subsided, their "contribution" to the "decision" of the Hungarian issue is reduced, the increased depending on the internal politics of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Austria, as well as the ratio of their forces with the forces of the Ottoman Sultanate. Two Hungarian King April 14, 1527 signed a truce, to fix a section of the country between them. Nevertheless, now it began a long-term bloody rivalry Zapolyai Party and the Habsburgs in Hungary. The first supported Poland. Herberstein, being in Poland once again in late February - early March 1528, said Ferdinand Sigismund I requirement - not to give his opponent Janos Zapolyai asylum in Poland. He did not dare ask. Ottoman danger has not disappeared, it was clear that its object can now be not only Slavic and Hungarian land, but the land the Grand Duchy. Military activities Suleiman increased. In the summer of 1528 the Ottoman armies invaded as a last resort. Under these conditions, the Hungarian question temporarily retreated into the background. And in February - March 1529 Herberstein went to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a difficult diplomatic mission - to achieve military assistance from Sigismund I. The two-week stay in Vilnius, ended without results from 20 March to 7 April 1529. Neither an eloquent description of the Ottoman conquests and threats hanging over all the nations of South-Eastern Europe and the Centre, nor a request for assistance does not have the desired effect. In addition to the diplomatic missions and Herberstein he succeeded in the political life of the country. After the death of Maximilian I, he went to a part of the embassy in 1519 to the future Emperor Charles V. And when Ferdinand, the Austrian Archduke, Herberstein defended not only the state, but also represented the interests of his native Styria. At the beginning of 1521 he became a member of the High Council of State of Styria, in 1527 - a member of the Lower Austrian chamber in 1537 - a member of the Supreme Military Council, in 1539 - the president of the Lower Austrian chamber. In 1532 Herberstein was elevated to the title of baron. The pinnacle of his diplomatic activity Herberstein held a meeting with Suleiman the Magnificent, when he was able to speak not prostrate themselves before the Sultan, as was the custom at the Ottoman court, but standing on one knee. No wonder later with the permission of the emperor joined the Herberstein coat of arms of the image of "Muscovite" and "Turk", referring to the two most important diplomatic mission of his life. Herberstein carried out many assignments Austrian crown, and by the end of his life (he died on March 28, 1566) earned the reputation of being one of the most experienced and active diplomatic empire. But no less fame brought him the book "Notes on Muscovite Affairs". Work Herberstein published several times and, of course, contain information on Russian, it is interesting not only for European readers, but also for the Russian. It is believed that the original version of "Notes" was created soon after returning from the diplomat`s second journey to Muscovy, and the second Herberstein spoke to them in the early 1540s. By 1544 the book was completed, but only in 1549, "Notes on Muscovy" saw the light. It was very timely: in 1548 in Poland there was a party again, which sought to strengthen the position of Janos Zapolyai. "Nedoredaktirovannost" book, probably the result of the haste in which it was prepared for publication. Herberstein attention to the fate of Hungary makes it almost as the heroine of his writings as Rus. Twice he discusses the Hungarian problem, the pain comes back to the last days of Louis of Hungary, tells of the heyday of the Kingdom of Hungary under Matthias Corvinus (Matthias Hunyadi) and begun under his successors Jagiellonia - Vladislav (Laszlo) and Louis (Lajos) - decline. According to the historian VO Kliuchevskoi, "a clever Austrian diplomat" sang Hungary "full feeling sad funeral song." The justification of the Habsburg policy, condemning the Jagiellonian policy, which he accused of betraying Hungary in 1526, as well as Janos Zapolyai, who is accused of conspiring with the Sultan and open betrayal of Hungary to "Notes on Muscovy" is not exhausted. If the content can be reduced only to the deployed manifest foreign policy line of the Habsburgs with regard to Hungary, Poland and the Russian state, the book Mr.
e have found many readers in the following centuries. Natural mind, observation, comprehensive education received while traveling in Europe, the possibility of direct communication with the population - all this led to the dignity of "Notes on Muscovite Affairs". Western Europe for the first time received a more or less authentic essay on the Russian state, a precise description of the court customs, receiving ambassadors, religious ceremonies and daily life.