Date of Birth: 07/11/1910
Place of birth: Sestroretsk
Studies Earth`s radiation belts, conducted under the guidance of SN Vernov until the last years of his life, yielded many interesting results of both science and practice.
Prominent Soviet physicist Sergey Verne was born July 11, 1910 in the town of Sestroretsk, near St. Petersburg. After graduating from high school he entered first in the Mechanical College, but the following year he became a student of Physics and Mechanics Faculty of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute named after Kalinin (now St. Petersburg State Technical University), graduating in 1931. While still a student, he began working in S.N.Vernov located within walking distance from Polytechnic State Radium Institute, which was sent for distribution by graduation.
The scope of the interests of young scientists become cosmic rays. That is the topic focused on his first published scientific work. And, unlike many other scientists of the time, to improve the already well-proven methods for studying cosmic rays at sea level, S.N.Vernov tried to experiment in the stratosphere, ie post instrumentation "closer" to the study of the subject. In 1935 he defended his thesis on "The study of cosmic rays in the stratosphere using radiosondes." Development of a new method S.N.Vernovym stratospheric research laid fundamentally new experimental basis for an exceptionally broad and deep on the results of the research cycle, which lasted for several decades. Doctoral thesis on "The latitudinal effect of cosmic rays in the stratosphere and the cascade theory test," which S.N.Vernov defended in 1939, was one of the results of these studies.
After postdoctoral work S.N.Vernov remains at the Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences (FIAN), where he prepared the materials, and in 1943 moves to rabotuv Moscow State University (MSU). There he worked first as a professor of the atomic nucleus and the radioactive radiation of the Physics Department of Moscow State University, and then became head of the department of cosmic rays at the same faculty. After the formation in 1946 of the Research Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), he became deputy director of the institute. Since 1960 and until the last days of his life S.N.Vernov - director of SINP.
In 1946 SN Vernov set the task to study the absorption of primary protons and generation of secondary components, such as electron-photon. To carry out research under the guidance of Sergei Nikolaevich unique devices have been developed, which had no analogues while. With their help, we studied the electron-photon component, muons, the component constituting the nuclear fission as well as a component that creates showers of penetrating particles. But in those years S.N.Vernovu have had little to lift the equipment into the atmosphere. He was interested in much greater heights. The first such attempt was made in June 1946. Then at Leningrad held launches three missiles designed and manufactured under the leadership of Pavel Ivanovich Ivanov. All three missiles were installed S.N.Vernova equipment. Unfortunately, launches ended in failure. But Sergey did not leave attempts to send their equipment into the upper atmosphere. To this period belongs Vernov acquainted with Sergei Korolev who directed in those years, the creation of the first Soviet ballistic missiles. Their collaboration, which began in the late 40`s, continued until the last days of the life of the Queen. In 1947, a test site in Kapustin Yar (Astrakhan region), the first ballistic missile launches were carried out, created on the basis of the German "V-2". With the support of the then President of the Academy of Sciences Vavilov Vernov managed to get permission to install their equipment in two copies missiles. The first such launch took place on November 2, 1947 and can be considered as the first launch in our country geophysical rocket (in the US missile launch for scientific purposes started in April - May 1946).
In subsequent years, missile launches with scientific equipment continued and become regular. Analysis of the obtained data allow SN Vernov a fundamental conclusion about the approximate constancy of the effective cross section and inelasticity in the collision of proton-nucleus atoms of air.
These results have been widely recognized. In 1949 SN Verne was awarded the Stalin Prize, and October 23, 1953 he was elected a corresponding member of USSR Academy of Sciences in the Department of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (Physics).
Maximum creative and scientific-organizational activity S.N.Vernova came in the 50s. To expand the circle of his scientific interests in the field of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are beginning to be interested in it not only as an object of study, but also as a means to explore other objects (the interplanetary medium and solar activity).
Launch of the first artificial Earth satellite S.N.Vernovu provided new opportunities for research in the field interested him. On running May 15, 1958 Third Soviet satellites was installed a new type of device based scintillation counter, who had a multi-purpose. It is possible to detect a stationary high-intensity zone in the polar region and decipher qualitative composition of the radiation (electrons with hundreds keV). This was the first discovery of Earth`s outer radiation belt. Unfortunately, the satellite failure of a piece of equipment is not allowed S.N.Vernovu already report made a discovery in the world scientific literature palm given to the American physicist Van Allen radiation belts discovered later than S.N.Vernov but who was able to assess their nature correctly. Now the Earth`s radiation belts is often called the Van Allen belts. In domestic literature can find another name - the Van Allen belt - Vernov. But, unfortunately, this is just a tribute to the remarkable Soviet physicist.
In 1960, for the study of the Earth`s outer radiation belts and magnetic fields of the Earth and the Moon SN Vernov was awarded the Lenin Prize.
Studies Earth`s radiation belts, conducted under the guidance of SN Vernov until the last years of his life, yielded many interesting results of both science and practice. the phenomenon of particle flow for example, was found for the Discount zones in areas of planetary magnetic anomalies in the South Atlantic. They were investigated and revealed details of the various processes of capture of particles, their acceleration, particle precipitation due to various perturbations of the magnetosphere and even iskusstvtennym impact on iem man belts. The results of these experiments, detailed study of the available material, helped to create a quantitative theory of Earth`s radiation belts and even radiation in near-Earth space.
November 26, 1968 S.N.Vernov was elected an academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the Department of Nuclear Physics (high energy physics). Over half a century of creative activity SN Vernov their extensive scientific school was created.
Sergey Vernov died on September 26, 1982 in Moscow.