Date of Birth: 03/24/1891
Place of birth: Moscow
Vavilov was born in Moscow on March 24, 1891. Sergei Ivanovich`s father was a merchant, draper. Their family had four children: Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov and Sergei, who later became academicians, daughter Lydia - she died very young - and the younger son Alexander, who became a doctor.
In 1909 Vavilov graduated from the Moscow Commercial College.
After that, he entered the Moscow University. For the second year, Sergei Ivanovich began to conduct research.
The first scientific work of Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov "Photometry of colored sources" appeared in the "Journal of the Physico-Chemical Society" in 1913.
A year later came another job Vivilova "Kinetics of thermal fading of colors."
In 1914 the First World War. Vavilov was at the front, where he stayed until February 1918. He served in the engineering parts: in the Battalion, the military detachment Road, radiodivizione. In 1918 in Dvinsk Vavilov was captured by the Germans, but after two days running.
Even at the front Vavilov engaged in scientific work, completing the experimental and theoretical work on the oscillation frequency of the loaded antenna.
After returning to Moscow, Vavilov engaged in optics.
In the twenties, from the pen of Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov wrote the first non-fiction books: "The action of light," "Sunlight and the life of the Earth", "The sun and the eye." Besides Vavilov translated into Russian, "Optics" Newton.
Beginning in 1922, he explored the phenomenon of luminescence. Subsequently, these studies led to the development of fluorescent lamps, widely used so far.
Many of the works of Vavilov in the twenties were devoted to the fluorescence and phosphorescence. To study the afterglow of Sergei Ivanovich himself designed and built phosphoroscope with a rotating mirror.
With this device Vavilov discovered a fundamental difference between the fluorescence of phosphorescence, although earlier it was believed that these processes continuously into one another.
a new kind of glow was opened in 1933, later called "Cerenkov radiation." Postgraduate Vavilov PA Cherenkov, according to his instructions Sergei Ivanovich studied the luminescence of the solution of salts of uranium under the action of gamma-rays of radium. During the experiment Cherenkov discovered that light is not only the solution but also the solvent - water, when there is no uranium salts.
It turned out that under the influence of gamma-ray glow pure liquids. In the glow effect does not affect the change in temperature, or the addition of potassium iodide solution or silver nitrate, causing luminescence quenching usual.
Vavilov hypothesized that the glow is not caused by the gamma rays and electrons knocked out of atoms. This is confirmed by the fact that the emission depended on the direction of the magnetic field in the liquid.
The cause of the phenomenon of light emission by electrons moving in a liquid able to explain theoretical physicists Tamm and I. Frank, Vavilov invited to participate in the research. They showed that the glow is caused by electrons moving in a fluid at speeds faster than the speed of light in a given medium.
For this discovery Vavilov, Cherenkov, Tamm, and Frank received the Stalin Prize of I degree.
In 1958, when Sergei was already dead, Tamm, Frank and PA Cherenkov won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
With the help of the Cerenkov effect it became possible to measure the speed, energy, and the charge of fast particles.
In 1931 Vavilov was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
In 1932 Vavilov became a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
In 1934 Vavilov founded the book series "Classics of Science", and then "Biographies," "Memoirs."
In 1934, Vavilov wrote the work "Dialectics of Light Phenomena".
In 1939 Vavilov released work "The New Physics and Dialectical Materialism."
In 1941, Vavilov wrote the work "Development of the idea of ??substance."
During World War II, Physics Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences (FIAN) were evacuated to Kazan. Its director, at the time, was Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov. Scientists engaged in optical sights for artillery fire and bombing, periscope and other military equipment.
In 1945 Vavilov was elected president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
By the time the brother Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov, Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov has died in Saratov prison of hunger and disease. But Sergei Ivanovich knew about it, he hoped that Nikolai Vavilov alive.
During his life Vavilov has written more than 150 scientific and popular works.
Under the leadership of Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov was created society "Knowledge", press organ of which was "Science and Life" magazine. Its chief editor was Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov.
In 1949, the USSR Council of Ministers appointed by Academician Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov, the chief editor of the second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. He is a very serious attitude to this appointment. With the personal involvement Vavilov drafted vocabulary publications, but most work on an encyclopedia of academician failed to complete (he died when published seven volumes).
Akademik Sergey Vavilov died suddenly January 25, 1951.