Celebiography.net

Semen Gordiy

Picture of Semen Gordiy

Date of Birth: 09/07/1317

Age: 35

Citizenship: Russia

Background

John Kalita`s death was an event for the Russian princes: they hurried to the Khan, hoping someone on the great reign, who on any purchase. Simeon Ivanovich in May 1340 came to the Uzbeks. He presented a long-term charter Khan and his father was appointed the Grand Duke. There were, of course, without bribing Tatars.

Simeon Ivanovich was not inferior in prudence father and followed his rules: load with presents khans, flattered them, but strictly commanded the Russian princes. He was given the name proudly.

One of Novgorod refused to pay tribute - Simeon Ivanovich punished them. The money was paid, but, following the tradition, the Grand Duke of Merit must "observe their ancient statutes".

In 1341 Vitebsk Prince besieged Mozhaysk, and burned its suburbs. In the same year, he died famous Golden Horde Khan Uzbek. Instead, the way to the throne of the sword struck his son Janibek, killing two of his brothers. Simeon Ivanovich and other princes went to the new khan. There was also the Metropolitan Feognost, which Khan bowed to his side, thinking to get the income and from the church. But Feognost was adamant.

While Simeon Ivanovich was with Khan, Pskov fought the Livonian Germans. Pskovityane took suburb Rugodiva or Narva. Novgorod at that time was in a serious condition: fire destroyed much of the city.

In 1343, Estonians, outraged by violence on the part of the Danes and the Germans laid siege to Reval, took Ezelskuyu fortress. Nearly two years of bloody war lasted. In the end, the Danish king for 19 thousand marks of silver yielded to the Livonian Order all of your rights to these lands.

In 1345 Algirdas became the sole ruler of Lithuania. In 1346, he won the part of Russian land - the city Opoku, Meadow, took 300 rubles tribute from Porkhov and in the same year went to Novgorod. Novgorod, trying to appease the Grand Duke of Lithuania, made a shameful thing: they slew at the Chamber insulted Olgerd mayor Eustache. Algirdas was satisfied with this and agreed to peace. In 1347 the Livonian Order defeated Olgerd. This led to bad consequences for Vitebsk, Polotsk and Smolensk, who fought on the side of the Lithuanians.

In 1348 the Swedes went to war, started Orekhov (land of Novgorod). Although the town was taken, but King Magnus could not do more, and was forced to return to Stockholm.

Grand Prince Simeon Ivanovich did not take special care of the Novgorodians and only once was theirs. He thought for a long time whether to Novgorod to help in the fight against the Swedes, but still decided to send troops to his brother John Ioannovich, he himself went to the Khan.

Novgorod in 1348 solemnly declared that from now on will be called Pskov Novgorod younger brother, that is, become independent of it. Thus, the St Olga`s homeland gained full independence. Novgorodians walked out of the Dvina lands to fight in Norway, and the Swedes near Vyborg pitched in Dorpat and make peace with them. The agreement was signed by the Swedish king, a side of the Novgorod - Posadnik Yuri.

Algirdas looking for friendship with Simeon Ioannovich. Polish King Casimir III the Great became a persecutor of the Orthodox faith oppressed the clergy in the Volyn region, turning the local population in their faith. At this time, four people - Hungarians, Poles, Lithuanians and Tatars - were arguing about the ancient domain of our country - about Volyn, Galicia and Podolia.

Back in 1346 it began mor - "Black Death" - known plague. Moore came from China, where several million people have died, reached Greece, Syria, Egypt, Italy, England, France. We are dying out entire cities. In London, the same cemetery were buried, as reported by the chroniclers, 50 thousand people. In 1349 disaster overtook Scandinavia, and from there moved to Pskov and Novgorod. In Pskov plague began in 1352, killed one third of the inhabitants. The disease came to other cities - Kiev, Chernigov, Smolensk, Suzdal. In Glukhov Belozersk and there was not a resident.

It is unknown how plague affected the Muscovites, but during this period, in 1353, died Grand Prince Simeon Ivanovich, his two sons, John and Simeon and his brother Andrew.

Simeon was no longer Ioannovich 36-37 years of age. This sovereign, cunning, prudent, five times went to the Horde to keep peace in the country. He first called himself Grand Prince of All Russia. Enjoyed excellent favor Khan, obtain for exemption from the payment of tribute to the Horde ravaged the Tver principality. While Simeon Ivanovich was the true head of the feudal princes, he could not prevent strife between them.

After death of the first spouse Simeon Ivanovich married with Eupraxia, the daughter of one of the princes of Smolensk. But soon Eupraxia was sent to his father, and Simeon Ivanovich married for the third time - Maria Alexandrovna, Princess of Tver. From her he had four children, but all of them died in childhood.

By the church the memorable events of this time is the construction of the Church of the Holy. Trinity (about 1340). One of the Rostov boyars Cyril moved to the town of Radonezh, the lot of the younger brother of Grand Prince Andrei. They eagerly sat down

ilis poor people. Kirill also from various misfortunes impoverished. Two of his young sons, Stephan and Bartholomew (called a monk, Sergius) sought refuge from worldly sorrows in the works of holiness. The first was the abbot of the monastery of the Epiphany in Moscow, the second long lived a hermit in the dense forests, in silent solitude. . Around the wooden church of the Holy Trinity, it was built, he founded a monastery - the future of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad.

The strict piety and Christian humility exalted St. Sergius between contemporaries. Metropolitan, princes and boyars are very respected him. The reign of Simeon were decorated with paintings in Moscow Assumption and Archangel Cathedral and the Church of St. Transfiguration. Notable foundry art artisan Boris. He poured bells to Moscow and Novgorod churches. The Greeks sent not only to metropolitans, but also artists, who taught Russian religious painting. When Simeon in Russia began to use paper. Perhaps the paper has reached us through Novgorod from German soil.