Date of Birth: 06/05/1887
Place of birth: New York
Citizenship: United States
Cultural XX century. Encyclopedia. Volume One A-L. C-P., University Book. 1998
Benedict (Benedict) Ruth Fulton (1887-1948) -amer. cultural anthro- visible (with Kardiner, Linton, Sapir, Mead and Dubois) representative etnopsihol. direction ( "culture and personality") in Amer. Anthropology. In 1921-23 B. studying under the guidance of Boas at Columbia University are cultural anthropology. In 1923 Doctor defends. Dis. "Representations of the Amer. Indians of spirits Charm ". From 1923 until his death B. taught at Columbia University, those which in 1936 changed Boas as the Dean branch of anthropology. In 1947 B. was elected Chairman of Amer. anthropology. Association. For several. months before his death became a professor at Columbia University.
The first phase of anthropology. B. Activities related to field research on the reservation severoamer. Indians, on cut-to-there ryh she published in 1935 a monograph "Mythology zunya". Obtained during field work materials often used BV in its work in the beginning. 30s. Etnopsihol. the direction of the primary recognized in every culture and personality features of its psyche (psychol. determinism). B., as well as others. Researchers of this trend, widely used Freud`s concept. In "Configurations of Culture" (1923), she took the Nietzschean differentiation cultures to the "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" types and argued that cross-cultural differences are due primarily to differences in individual psychology, because culture - "individual psychology, reflected on the big screen" . In the article "Anthropology and abnormal" (1934) AB, developing the ideas of Freud, considered dec culture. peoples as a specific manifestation of the inherent psychopathology. In its Chapter. obscheteor. work "Models of Culture" (1935), B. went beyond psychology, in an attempt to synthesize anthropological., Sociology. and psychol. Approaches to the phenomenon of culture. She advocated cultural relativist principle, according to which the culture of each phenomenon can be adequately understood only in the general context of this culture. Stressing the uniqueness of each culture, B. at the same time admitted that between about CMV and individual there is a close relationship, and the person should be studied in a system of this relationship. The concept of cultural relativism has been used it to criticize the fascist ideas in the works early. 40th gg.v during the war on the instructions of the US Military Intelligence Service took up the study of B. Jpn. nat. psychology, to create a kind of guide to Amer. military and CET. officials after the occupation of Japan. B. widely used technique developed its "distance learning cultures" (scientific analysis. And artist. Lit-ry, prisoners of war diaries, viewing Jpn. Movies, interviews with the Japanese living in the US). B. has never been in Japan and did not know Jpn. language. On the basis of the collected materials he wrote the famous book "Chrysanthemum and the Sword" (1946). In it a cultural relativist position Jpn. culture is seen as hierarchical in nature, which implies precise knowledge of each member of the society of their place in it and its role. B. tipologiziruet Jpn. culture of shame, contrasting it with the west, especially the Americans., a culture of guilt from ethical. focus on the deities. Commandments. B. paid particular attention to Jpn. The concept of "he" (grace, kindness) and "weights" (debt), the education of children in families. Despite the fact that "The Chrysanthemum and the Sword" received a mixed assessment in Japan and in the West (B. was accused of anti-historicism, Rec. Ethno-centrism, that she painted a portrait is not Japanese, and Jpn. Prisoner of war), it has become classical. work abroad. Japanese studies and cultural anthropology in general, work in a swarm still constantly approached by researchers. Students B. - M. Mead, R. Subway, M. Wolfenstein - widely used and deepened developed technique B. "distance learning culture."
Cit .: Configurations of Culture in North America // American Anthropologist. Menasha, 1932. Vol. 34. N 1; Anthropology and the Abnormal // Journal of General Psychology. Worcester, 1934. Vol. 10. N 1; Zuni Mythology. V.1-2. NY, 1935; Patterns of Culture. Boston, 1959; Race: Science and Politics. NY, 1940, 1959; The Races of Mankind (with G.Weltfish). NY, 1943; The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese culture. Boston, 1946;
Chrysanthemum and the Sword // Chrysanthemum and the Sword: An Anthology of cultural anthropology. M., 1998; Models of culture // Ibid.
Lit .: An Anthropologist at Work; Writings of Ruth Benedict. Ed. by M. Mead. Boston, 1959; NY, 1966. Mead M. Ruth Benedict. NY, L., 1974; Modell JS Ruth Benedict: Patterns of a Life. Phil, 1983.; [Bibliography) // American Anthropologist. Menasha, 1949. Vol. 51. N 3.