Date of Birth: 01/10/1936
Place of Birth: Houston
Citizenship: United States
In 1953, Vladimir entered the Rayssky University, the alma mater of his father. Finding a first-year curriculum in Electronics "is not too advanced," he turned his focus to physics. After graduating with honors from the University in 1957, he spent the summer in the company "Exxon" and received his first patent for the invention of the high-voltage pulse generator - the instrument that characterized the drilling process.
In the autumn of 1957 Vladimir began graduate work at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In the first year of graduate school he was introduced to John Bolton, the Australian radio astronomer who came to Caltech to build an interferometer (two radio telescope, interconnected electronic devices, with the result that they become tantamount to a much larger telescope) at the University Radio Observatory, located in the Owens Valley , 200 miles north of Los Angeles. W. did his doctoral thesis under the supervision of Bolton, mapping emission variations coming from the Milky Way, with a wavelength of 31 cm. Doctoral dissertation he defended in 1962. He then spent, as expected, a postdoctoral year at Caltech, and then entered the laboratory telephone company "Bell", and more specifically - the Study Radio laboratory in Crawford Hill (NJ). Here he worked in collaboration with Arno A. Penzias.
In 1960, scientists of the company "Bell" built a 20-foot reflective antenna in Holmdel (New Jersey) to receive signals from the "Echo" satellite. When by 1963 antenna has performed its role, Penzias and B. remade it into radio astronomy telescope. Its precise calibration and extreme sensitivity were ideal for measuring the intensity of extraterrestrial radio sources. B. Penzias and can also detect and remove from their measuring radio noise arising from local sources, such as the soil, the earth`s atmosphere and the antenna itself. This ability has allowed them to make absolute measurements of the background radiation intensity from the regions of the sky near the source of their interest. Reference source built Penzias, cooled with liquid helium to minimize the thermal radiation and thus get exactly known amount of weak noise. B. invented the switch to communicate alternately Telescopic amplifier with an antenna and a reference source, in order to compare the reference noise with noise received from space.
In 1964, working for the first time with its own system, Penzias and B measured signals from Cassiopeia A, the brightest radio source in the constellation Cassiopeia. Cas A as it is commonly referred to together experts, is the formation of supernovae, expanding gaseous shell, resulting in the explosion of a star. Two researchers, to his surprise, found that the background noise level exceeds the expected value. When this puzzling result of repeated and subsequent measurements, Penzias and B. carefully checked the antenna system, and other sources of noise and made the necessary measurements, trying to eliminate the error. However, no matter what they did, they could not significantly reduce the abnormally high noise.
Radiation is typically characterized by wavelength, or frequency related. But since all objects emit electromagnetic energy having wavelengths which become shorter as the heating object, a wavelength can also be associated with the temperature. White light is a mixture of all colors up to violet, the shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum. Since the radiation also depends on the color and texture of the object surface, taking as its starting point a standard black body. Although the black body emits a spectrum of radiation, rather than a single wavelength, each characterized by a temperature of a dominant wavelength at which radiation is particularly intense. Cold body also emit wavelengths but they are too large and do not belong to the visible part of the spectrum.
Unexplained background radiation discovered by Penzias and B, going on long (radio) waves, the corresponding black-body radiation at a temperature of 3,5