Robert Laird Borden
Date of Birth: 06/26/1854
Birth Place: Grand-Pre
Borden was born and raised in Grand-Pre, Nova Scotia, the agricultural community in the north of Annapolis Valley, where his great-grandfather (Perry Borden`s father) settled on Prairie Acadian land in 1760. He studies at the Academy of Acacia Villa. His father, Andrew Borden, he saw "a man endowed with great ability and common sense" man "quiet, thoughtful, philosophical turn of mind"; Nevertheless, "it did not have enough energy, and he had a great gift in the affairs." His mother, Eunice Jane Laird was resolute: Borden admired "[its] moral force, amazing energy, great ambition and exceptional abilities." This ambition was transmitted to her firstborn, uchivshemusya with diligence and help parents in farm work, which he hated.
From 1869 to 1874 he worked as a teacher in the Grand-Pre and Matouane in New Jersey. Seeing no future in education, he returned to Nova Scotia in 1874, and four years as a trainee at a law firm in Halifax (without university education); in 1878 he was admitted to the Bar of Nova Scotia, becoming the best in the Bar test. Then he went to Borden Kentvill (Nova Scotia) as a junior partner of the Conservative lawyer John P. Chipman. Since 1880 Borden belonged to Freemasonry. In 1882, Wallace Graham asked him to return to Halifax to join the conservative law firm led by Graham and Charles Hibbert Tupper. After the departure of Graham, appointed judge, and Tupper, passed into politics by the fall of 1889 Borden became the senior partner in the 35-year-old. By ensuring their financial security, September 25, 1889 he married the daughter of the owner of the hardware store from Halifax Laura Bond (1863-1940). Children they did not have. In 1894, he bought a large estate to the south of the road Kuinpulskoy; couple christened their new home "Pinehurst". In 1893 he won the first of the two cases that he filed against the judicial committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. He represented the most important businesses in Halifax and was a member of a number of administrative councils novoshotlandskih companies, including Bank of Nova Scotia and the insurance company Crown Life. After becoming chairman Novoshotlandskogo barristerial Society in 1896, he initiated the organization in 1896 in Montreal, the constituent assembly of the Association of the Canadian Bar Association. At the time of leaving politics Borden has the largest coastal provinces in the Law Office and became very rich.
The political career from 1896 to 1920
Borden was elected from the county of Halifax during the 1896 federal election, the results of which Wilfrid Laurier became prime minister. In 1901, Borden took control of the Conservative Party and became the head of the opposition. He calmly rebuilt the party again, after it has lost its power and influence to defeat Sir Charles Tupper in 1896. He came to power in elections in 1911, building a campaign on the rejection of Laurier`s plan to establish free trade between Canada and the United States. Borden and the Conservatives called for more "imperial preference", ie the use of tariffs to reduce imports from outside of the British Empire.
As the Prime Minister of Canada during the First World War, Borden transformed his government to a wartime administration, adopting in 1914 the law on military measures. Borden urged Canada to provide 500,000 soldiers to the military gain. However, volunteers were scarce, as Canadians be aware that in the war will not be a quick and easy finish. Borden, however, was set up to comply with their obligations: he secured the adoption of the Military Service Act, which led to the crisis of conscription in 1917 and divided the country into linguistic terms. The unpopular issue of conscription would certainly heralded the end of his reign in the elections in 1917, if not Borden attracted members of the Liberal Party (Laurier refused) to create a unionist government. In the election of 1917 candidates from the "government" (including the Liberal Unionist) defeated opposition "Laurier Liberals" in English Canada, which provided a very significant parlamentskoebolshinstvo Borden. "Laurier Liberals" were almost exclusively French-speaking region. In fact, the front was sent very few new recruits, as the Canadian Army did not have the means of logistic support for training, staffing officers and ambulance cost of 500 000 people in Europe. But for Borden, known for his aversion to everything French, polarization, which was bound to cause this measure was not an inconvenience, and it only took advantage of the division of the Liberal Party.
The war has allowed Canada to prove himself an independent power. Borden wanted to create their own Canadian army, so as not to divide the soldiers and not to define them in the British division. Minister of Militia Sam Hughes ascertained, good training and preparing Canadians for battle in their own divisions, and head of the Canadian divisions in Europe was General Arthur Kerry, although they were still under British command. However, differences on the Somme, at Ypres, Passendale and especially in the battle on the crest of Vimy, the Canadian forces have shown that they are among the best in the world. However, Sam Hughes was criticized for his insistence on armed Canadian soldiers Canadian rifles, poorly adapted to the conditions of the trenches. He was also criticized in Quebec for what it is being explicitly Francophobe, he did not respond to initiatives to simplify obtaining Francophone officer positions and their unification in the French-speaking part of a command.
In international affairs, Borden played a crucial role in transforming the British Empire into a partnership of equal states - the Commonwealth - a concept that was first discussed at the Imperial meeting in London during the war. Borden also introduced the first income tax was intended as a temporary measure, but later never repealed.
Convinced that on the battlefields of Europe, Canada received official status, Borden demanded a separate place for the country at the Paris Peace Conference. Initially, United Kingdom opposed this, as well as the United States, believes that such a delegation will be only an additional voice for the British. Borden said that since Canada had lost in the war more people than the United States, it is, at least, deserve representation as a secondary power. British Prime Minister David Lloyd George eventually relented and convinced Americans cautious to accept the presence of separate Canadian, Australian, New Zealand and South African delegations. Borden`s insistence not only allowed him to imagine Canada in Paris as a state, but also provided the opportunity for each dominion sign the Treaty of Versailles by yourself and get the status of an individual member of the League of Nations.
At the insistence of Borden it was ratified by the Parliament of Canada. Borden was the last prime minister knighted: Nickle Resolution adoption in 1919 the House of Commons voted in favor of stopping the practice of awarding titles.
In the same year, Borden authorized the use of military force to end the Winnipeg general strike. Between 1914 and 1917 within the framework created by the First World War xenophobia against citizens of the Austro-Hungarian First Empire 8579 East Europeans have been jailed. This number includes approximately 5000 ukrainokanadtsev, some of whom were born in Canada. In addition, it has been put on the account and eighty thousand people, while violating their basic human rights. In 1917 they were deprived of the right to vote.
The government nationalized railroads Borden Canadian Northern Railway and Grand Trunk Railway Company for the subsequent creation of the state railway Canadian roads.
Sir Robert Borden resigned from the post of prime minister in 1920. From 1924 to 1930 he was chancellor of Queen`s University and the chairman of the two financial institutions. Borden died in Ottawa on June 10, 1937. He is buried in the cemetery Beechwood in Ottawa (Ontario).
Borden was the last prime minister, born before 1867, the formation of a confederation.
He is depicted on the banknote of one hundred Canadian dollars.