Robert Alan Dahl
Date of Birth: 12/17/1915
Place of birth: Inwood
Citizenship: United States
Robert Alan Dahl (Robert Alan Dahl) was born December 17, 1915 the first in Inwood, Iowa (Inwood, Iowa).
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, he became involved in a dispute with C. Wright Mills (C. Wright Mills) on the nature of politics in the United States. Mills thought that the US government is in the grip of a unitary and demographically narrow power elite. Dahl said that this process should involve a lot of elite groups, who both compete and compromise with each other. And if this is not a democracy in the eyes of the masses, then, according to Dahl, at least polyarchy (or pluralism).
As an example, `mnogih` power in one of the most famous of his works,` Who Governs? `1961, Robert sees power structures (both formal and informal) in New Haven, Connecticut (New Haven, Connecticut) and comes to a similar conclusion. Since the end of 1960 to enter into Dahl challenged by scholars such as John. William Domhoff (G. William Domhoff) and a friend and colleague Dahl, Charles Lindblom (Charles E. Lindblom).
In recent years, Dahl`s works were designed in a more pessimistic tone. In his book `How Democratic Is the American Constitution?` 2001, he argued that the Constitution is far less democratic than it should be, if we take into account the fact that the authors worked from the perspective of `deep nevezhestva` the future.
One of the many achievements of Dahl - is his explanation of how the authorities can act. In fact, Dal introduced a simple model where `A` is seeking to` b `perform what she wants `A`. He built the Jump Bar on the best way to influence the worse:
- Rational persuasion, the best form of influence. His technique - to present the truth and explain why someone should do something, as, for example, the doctor urges to quit their smoking patients.
- Manipulative conviction. It involves lying and deception to force someone to act.
- The third way - is to use a system of rewards and punishments. In other words, in this case we have it comes to bribery.
- The power is threatening severe punishment, such as job loss or deprivation of liberty.
- Finally, in the course can go compulsion by the authorities and
- Physical strength, ie, `Backup form prinuzhdeniya` the use or threat of injury.
Has had a great influence on political science, Dal in their empirical research, particularly with regard to democracy and pluralism, it has introduced the minimum procedures that democracy must meet:
- Political control over the government`s decision.
- Elected positions shall accrue in accordance with the regular and fair elections where there is no place for violence. Elections must be held in public.
- Any adult citizen should have the right to participate in elections.
- Virtually all citizens who have reached the age of majority, may stand for election.
- Citizens should have the right to speak and develop their political preferences, not fearing to be punished.
- Citizens should have the right to search for alternative sources of information, real and protected under the law.
- Citizens have no right to form political parties, interest groups and other bodies. Tion, independent of the state.
Sociologist George. William Domhoff, categorically does not agree with the point of view of Dal, protested his opinion on the impact of New Haven in 1960, as reported in his work `Who Really Ruled in Dahl`s New Haven`. The politician and philosopher Charles Blattberg (Charles Blattberg) criticized Dahl attempts to define the concept of `demokratiya` by providing the necessary and sufficient conditions for its existence.
Robert A. Dahl was awarded the prize `Johan Skytte Prize` in political science in 1995.