Date of Birth: 07/16/1872
Place of birth: Borg near Oslo
The Voyage of the poles
In 1903 - 1906 years, Roald Amundsen, the first yacht to round the North America. From West Greenland it, following the instructions of the book McClintock repeated first path unfortunate Franklin expedition. From Barrow Strait, he headed south straits Peel and Franklin to the northern tip of King William Island. But, taking into account the disastrous mistake of Franklin, Amundsen rounded the island is not the west, and the east side - Straits James Ross and Rae - and spent two winters in the harbor `Yoa`, in the south-eastern shore of King William Island. From there, the fall of 1904, he explored the boat the narrowest part of the Strait of Simpson, and in the late summer of 1905 moved just to the west, along the coast of the mainland, leaving the north of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. He passed a series of shallow, dotted with islands, straits and bays, and finally met whalers; coming from the Pacific Ocean to the north-west coast of Canada. Wintered here for the third time, the summer of 1906 Amundsen passed through the Bering Strait into the Pacific Ocean and ended up swimming in San Francisco, bringing significant material in geography, meteorology and ethnography of the surveyed banks.
October 19, 1911 pole party of five people in four sledges pulled by 52 dogs, hit the road to conquer the North Pole. He wanted to enter into the Arctic Ocean through the Bering Strait and repeat, only in the higher latitudes, the famous drift "Fram".
December 17, 1911, they reached the point where, according to their calculations, should have been the South Pole. There they set up a tent and were divided into two groups, in turn, observed sextant the height of the sun every hour around the clock.
December 18 Norwegians on the old trail started back in 39 days and returned safely to Framheim. Despite the poor visibility, food stores, they found it easy: arranging them, they prudently of snow piled bricks guriiperpendikulyarno way on both sides of the stores and marked them with bamboo poles. All travel Amundsen and his companions to the South Pole and back took 99 days. Here are the names of the discoverers of the South Pole: Oscar Wisting, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, Olaf Byaland, Roald Amundsen.
By the time of the return on the Norwegian coast base "Fram" has come to the Bay of Whales and took all of the wintering party. March 7, 1912 from the city of Hobart in Tasmania Amundsen informed the world about his victory and safe return of the expedition.
May 21, 1925 the two aircraft took off and headed for the North Pole. On the same plane were Ellsworth, Ditrihson Omdal and, on the other - Amundsen, Riser-Larsen and Feucht. Around 1,000 kilometers from Spitsbergen Amundsen aircraft engine began to give failures. Fortunately, this place turned out to open water in the ice. I had to go for a landing. They sat down to a relatively well, except that the hydroplane nuzzled into the ice at the end of the polynya. Saved by the fact that the polynya was covered with thin ice, which slowed down the speed of the plane during landing. Second hydroplane also sat down not far from the first, but on landing he received severe damage and has failed.
Finally, on June 15, on the 24th day after the accident, it froze and they decided to take off. For the take-off was required not less than 1500 meters of open water. But they managed to align the long strip of ice only a little over 500 meters. For this band was polynya about 5 meters wide, and then - flat 150-meter block of ice. It ends with a high hummock. Thus, for takeoff band had a length of only about 700 meters.
"From the plane was thrown everything but the bare necessities. Reeser took the pilot`s seat-Larsen. The other five barely fit in the cab. That started up the engine, and the plane began to move.
The following second were the most exciting of my entire life. Riser-Larsen immediately gave full throttle. With the increase in speed ice irregularities affected more and more, and all the seaplane so scary tilts from side to side, that I`m not just worried that he perekuvyrnetsya and broken wings. We are rapidly approaching the end of the launch track, but the bumps and knocks shows that we still have not come off the ice. With increasing speed, but still not separated from the ice, we moved to a small ramp leading into wormwood. We are transported through the sagebrush, fell flat on the ice floe on the other side and suddenly rose into the air ... "
It began flight back. They flew as Amundsen put it, "having the next-door neighbor - death." In the event of an emergency landing on the ice, even if they survived, they waited for starvation. After 8 hours, 35 minutes flight jammed rudder actuators. But, fortunately, the plane was flying over open water near the northern coast of Spitsbergen, and the pilot confidently put the car into the water and took it as a motorboat. Travelers luck further: soon they were approached by a small fishing boat, whose captain agreed to tow the aircraft in Kingsbey ... The expedition is over.
From Spitsbergen its participants with the aircraft sailed on the boat. The meeting in Norway was solemn. The Oslo fjord, at the port of Horten, Amundsen`s plane was launched, the participants of the expedition got into the air it took off and landed in Oslo harbor. They were met by cheering crowds of thousands of people. It was July 5, 1925. It seemed that all the troubles in the past Amundsen. He again became a national hero.
In 1925, after lengthy negotiations Ellsworth bought the airship, named "Norge" ( "Norway"). The leaders of the expedition were Amundsen and Ellsworth. The creator of the airship the Italian Umberto Nobile was invited to the post of captain. The team was made up of Italians and Norwegians.
At 9 hours 55 minutes May 11, 1926, in the calm clear weather, "Norge" headed north, toward the pole. On board were 16 people. Everyone involved in the business. The motor runs smoothly. Amundsen watching ice conditions. He saw a dirigible endless ice fields with Ridge and recalled his last year`s flight ended landing at 88