Citizenship: United States
Public Enemy - a perfect example of the "pioneer" of excitement. It was not that creative, "Public Enemies" could be called quite so sverhoriginalnyh -the origins of their inventions are found easily in the Run-D.M.C Records. or Voogie Down Productions.
They upgraded hardcore rap differs enviable freshness and spontaneity of sound, and politicized lyrics reach an unprecedented, almost revolutionary glow. Frontman Chuck D, the owner of an impressive powerful baritone, found a spectacular form of rhymed almost all social problems,especially those related to the Negro municipality, offering as an outlet not only a social activity, but also, if need be, revolutionary tactics. In his texts for the first time with a maximum of honesty were voiced problems of African Americans, which will become a landmark part of American culture in the 90s.
Future Chuck D,Raydenauer Carlton (Carlton Ridenhour) was born in New York on August 1, 1960. His parents had always participated actively in political life, which explains much of the fate of the Carlton, not only social activist by vocation, but also recognized intellectual. At the time of the creation of Public Enemy,he was listed as a university student in Long Island, where he successfully studied graphics and design. In fact, to become a professional designer guy is not going to in their spare time moonlighting as a presenter at the student radio station WBAU. Here-then he met Hank Shockley (Hank Shocklee) and Stephenie Bill (Bill Stephney).The guys quickly became friends, found a lot in common: all three loved hip- hop and fond of politics. Shockley already had left a few of his own songs, which tried to record in the studio. For one of the tracks with the remarkable title "Public Enemy No.1" Raydenauer recited rap. Stephenie,who had his own show on the radio several times invited to Raydenauera studio, and it was aired under the name Chuckie D.
Rumors about Chuckie D hooligan ethers quickly spread in the musical get-together. As a producer and co-founder of the label Def Jam Records, Rick Rubin (Rick Rubin) has learned of the existence of a demo cassette,and then heard Rapp Chuck D, he immediately offered him a partnership with his label. Carlton Raydenauer hesitated. And then it dawned, without exaggeration, a great idea. He developed the concept of a fundamentally new, revolutionary hip-hop group, the main feature of which will be extreme sound and sharp, accusatory politicized lyrics.Naturally, Shockley and Stephenie not left behind. Hank Shockley was appointed chief producer, and Bill Stephenie - press secretary. With regard to the creative team, that it included "magician turntables" DJ Terminator X (real name Norman Lee Rogers) and "Minister of Information" Professor Griff (real name Richard Griffin),member of the friendly organization Nation of Islam. If features a DJ all is clear, then, "the professor", except for communication with the press, He was responsible for warlike choreography of dancers accompanying the show Public Enemy. Join them and a longtime friend of frontman,a professional pianist and an aspiring rapper William Drayton (William Drayton). Drayton does not become a rapper`s number two and has developed its own scenic image, reincarnated in a character called Flavor Flav, a caricature of Chuck D, something like a court jester Public Enemy.
"Yo Bum Rush the Show!" -Was the name of the debut album of the band, which was released on Def Jam Records in 1987. His loose bits and powerful verbal messages critics touted in every way, not behind them and advanced rapfans. But for a wider audience Public Enemy charm and it remains not clear.
But their second album "It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back",recorded in a year, to ignore it was impossible. Under the guidance of a reliable Shockley production team, which is dubbed the Bomb Squad, came up with a tight, somewhat chaotic mix of acoustic elements of rock, jazz and funk. The revolutionaries in fact, Public Enemy have created rich sonic landscape that relied on avant-garde techniques of collage of unidentified samples, piercing sirens, the tireless rhythm, violent sounds, DJ scratching and scraps of news reports. This disturbing mix sounded even more striking, interwoven with powerful vocals Chuck D and his absurd caricature rap alter-ego Flavor Flav. This character with a nasal voice,with his comic sunglasses and a huge clock hanging on the neck, was seen as an essential feature Public Enemy. The album "It Takes a Nation of Millions. ..", led the hipHop chart, equally touted for his stylistic innovations like rap critics and their colleagues in the rock shop. But the release of significance goes far beyond music.Public Enemy proved that hip- hop could be one of the instruments of social change.
With the increasing status of Public Enemy, until all the progressive press is recognized in deep sympathy with the team, their work became more and more challenging, scandalous direction. In his famous 1989 statement,Chuck D claimed that rap is now becoming a "black CNN": he tells about the events of the "black" commune, seen from the inside - so, as they never tell the usual media. In the eyes of the amazed public rap he turned into one of the most radical, uncompromising forms of art in the United States.In the light of such statements Public Enemy texts analyzed particularly closely. The track "Bring the Noise", speaking in defense of the black Muslim leader Louis Farrakhan (Louis Farrakhan), many caused discomfort, which journalists and did not hide. The song "Fight the Power",sounded in the controversial film by Spike Lee (Spike Lee) "Do the Right Thing", has also generated criticism of the attack on the Elvis Presley and John Wayne (John Wayne). But all that faded before the scandal provoked by an interview Professor Griff gave the newspaper "Washington Post". He had not averse anti-Semitic statements,but here even said that the Jews are responsible for all the world`s evil. Needless to describe the uproar, which is pretty excited utterance. Professor Griff managed to annoy everyone, even Chuck D felt that enough. At first he dismissed the "professor". Then he brought him back. Then he decided to disband the group, but again collected.Then Professor Griff gave one more interview and decided his fate. Another portion of the criticism of the Public Enemy frontman and address -and the way the group was closed to him forever. (Later he created a new team Asiatic Disciples, which released two albums maloudachnyh.)Balance 1989 other members of Public Enemy spent the preparation of the next Long-play. In the spring of 1990 they released their first promo single "Welcome to the Terrordome", Another red rag to a politically correct society. In the text again saw the malicious attacks on the Jews, which, however,did not prevent the album "Fear of a Black Planet" start in the Top 10 of the American pop charts. Enthusiastic reviews appeared in the press along with climbing the singles chart. Tracks " 911 Is a Joke", "Brothers Gonna Work It Out" and "Can`t Do Nuttin` for Ya Man" became hits in the Top 40.
For their fourth album "Apocalypse 91. ..The Enemy Strikes Black " (1991), a group re-recorded the track " Bring the Noise " with thrash metallers Anthrax. This rightly saw an attempt to build bridges with a white audience.
"Apocalypse 91 " was met by a stream of laudatory reviews. Audiophiles so actively begun to buy up it that the album started in 4- position charts.It has a strong text which, although somewhat lacking characteristic dark humor, and sound texture is not so impressed by the novelty.
The main event of 92 -year for the band began a massive tour, including the opening act for U2. Another surprise was pleased colleagues Flavor Flav, a drug addict with the experience,which again had a talk with the police. In order not to discourage the public interest, in autumn 1992, the team released a compilation of remixes of 7 and 6 new tracks "Greatest Misses". But contrary to expectations, Release categorically do not like any journalists or audience.While Flavor Flav was undergoing rehabilitation from drug addiction, the musicians were silent. Only in 1994, Public Enemy returned with the album "Muse Sick-n-Hour Mess Age". The intrigue was the factthat even before the disc on sale in the pages of magazines "Rolling Stone" and "The Source" were extremely negative reviews.The impatience of the fans had warmed considerably, so that the album debuted in the ranking of the Billboard 200 at # 14, but skeptical observers of these publications were, unfortunately, wrong. Not supported by the hit singles, "Muse Sick-N-Hour Mess Age" was soon dropped out of sight music lovers.Not even helped the album upscale samples introduced to give the credibility of anti-criminal sermons Public Enemy.
Chuck D insisted that the 95 - year Public Enemy rest of the tour. Now, after the break with the company Def Jam (purchased Sony label and imposes newstricter rules), it seemed more important to create his own record label.Including in order to breathe new life into Public Enemy. However, for the start of the rapper he released his solo debut "The Autobiography of Mistachuck", which is published in 1996.
It was only in the 97th rapper again took command works, working in several directions. By the fall of 1997 ,he managed to write and publish an autobiographical book, devoted, of course, the history of Public Enemy. In spring 1998 came the first full soundtrack in the asset team - music for the film Lee "He Got Game" Spike, which is more like a solid album than a soundtrack. Prominent publications again ahead of the official release,but reacted quite differently: Public Enemy has long touted as not, perhaps, since "Apocalypse` 91 " times.
As Chuck D plan was to spread the band`s music through the Internet. When the record label Def Jam refused to help him, he signed a contract with an independent company Atomic Pop.Even before the Seventh Long-play Public Enemy on the company`s website you can find and download new songs in MP3 format. Act for the time unprecedented. To all the other types of social activity Chuck D added another and voluntary advocacy in support of the latest Internet technologies.Rapper considered them an ideal opportunity for independent artists to find its audience. Unfortunately, in 2000 due to financial problems, the company Atomic Pop ceased to exist.
In summer 1999, finally, a new Long-play "There`s a Poison Goin` On. ..", which caused frustratingly sluggish public interest. Complete silence command, which lasted three years, was interrupted only in 2002when the disc is "Revolverlution" came out: a few new tracks, remixes and live recordings. After a short promotional tour, which had to be carried out without Flavor Flav (he sat under arrest for violation of probation conditions), Public Enemy have fallen into a state, which recalls from lethargy.Only when the place of social rebels and designers disturbing sound collages, are engaged in Public Enemy, completely deserted, many became clear how influential and powerful phenomenon they represent. Perhaps the most dramatic phenomenon in rap music of the 80s and 90s.