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Prokopiy Voznitsyn

Picture of Prokopiy Voznitsyn

Citizenship: Russia

Background

For 30 years of service, to-Rui he began in Ambassadorial order more at Ordino-Nashchokin, V. went from clerk to doom. clerk. Repeatedly traveled or messenger, or with the embassies of Austria, Turkey, Poland, Venice, and others. In 1681 it granted to the clerks in the same year sent to Istanbul with the Embassy okolnichy Chirikov for ratification Bakhchsarai truce. When Chirikov died there, B. had independently seek ratification of the treaty from the Sultan Mohammed IV. As a diplomat of the old type, and he apparently did not like Europe. Diplomat: so on Karlovitskom Congress (for the preparation of a peace treaty with Turkey) that, according to contemporaries (.. in particular, Veneziano Dipl Rudzini), a tall, burly and unsociable person "with a bad complexion and important posture" was dressed in a long clothes, lined with sable gray, with 6 or 7 gold chains around his neck; his hat decorated with magnificent diamonds, almost on every finger of both hands adorned with precious rings. Scrupulous oberegatel dignity of his sovereign, he was distinguished by perseverance and firmness in upholding the policy of Russia. Keeping in negotiations impenetrability and inaccessibility, it thus has sufficient flexibility to find a way out of difficult situations and complicated situations. As part of the "Great Embassy" (1697-1698) was the 3rd "great" ambassador after F. Lefort and F. Golovin. King Peter, suddenly left Vienna in connection with the riot musketeers in Moscow instructed to negotiate with the Turks in the Congress is Karlovitskom V. to-ory is probably best suited for this role, t. To. Knew the strengths and weaknesses and the Turks and Austrians and Venetians. Especially the close, he met with the Poles, when a few years was Russian. resident in Warsaw. B. sarcastically described in the "list of his articles" Polish behavior. Malachowski ambassador at the Congress, from to-cerned was not even horses, and he arrived in Karlovice foot. "But the ambition he surpassed all and for the sake of capturing a place of honor started a fight with the Russian, but the Muscovites won; of course, that in the struggle for the "honor" of the Pole was not to diplomacy, and he immediately took all the most unfavorable conditions of the Turks, but it took a lot of time at home and in other comical struggle for their dignity. " V. Let not owned and a little bit of ease in a secular communion inherent Lefort, and did not have minded state. her husband as he was talented Golovin, but he learned all the details of the diploma. Handcrafts and could successfully defend the interests of his country. For a long time talking with the king during the Great Embassy, ??B. deeply penetrated into the hidden plans of his sovereign, aimed at the reconquest of Sweden entering the Baltic Sea, although Peter and did not speak out loud about this. Supporting the king, B. aware that without ensuring the security of Russia in the south of the Turks and their vassals - the Crimea. Tatars, this task becomes impossible. Peter instructed during the negotiations with the Turks bargain for Russia the most favorable conditions of peace or truce. Zeal B. King Award encouraged him still unknown in Russia rank - dum. Adviser. The first step on the way to negotiations with the Ottoman Empire was the conference in Vienna (30 July 1698), where, in the opinion of all allies in the anti-Turkish coalition had to work together and present partner in the talks agreed claim. However, the first meeting with Austria. ministers have revealed significant differences in the understanding of the negotiated procedure with the Turks Russian. and Austria. parties. The Austrians thought: since each member of the Holy League claims to territory in kryh so on. Allies are not interested, and to negotiate with the tour. representatives must individually. This meant only one thing: Russia claims (just reclaimed from the Azov Turkey) to Kerch, why so eager to Russia in the negotiations could be met only by a joint Press Turks all members of the Holy League - a Russian count on success was not necessary. Convince the Austrians V. could not, and the conference ended in nothing. Eng. diplomat in his "list of his articles," summed up its findings shortly and emphatically: "... every one is his guard at the Congress [in Congress] ... must watch all his benefits, although the other is at a loss." In Karlovci (near Belgrade) Russia first participated in the diploma. an event of this magnitude. Her entry into the Holy Alliance with Austria and Venice Rzeczpospolita happened imperceptibly, in successive stages. Now it is in conjunction with the major powers at the Congress acted really multilateral character, and B had to compete against the most experienced Europ. diplomats. "The situation has been complicated because the actual isolation of Russia. Against her acting, of course, Turkey, helped her "intermediaries" - England and the Netherlands, and even allies - Austria and Poland - especially brought a lot of trouble. The potential enemy of Austria, England and the Netherlands in the planned European war - the France of Louis XIV - was also against Russia and used his huge influence in Istanbul. The fact is that in September 1698 the agreement was held in France, Austria, England and Holland on amicable section of the Spanish inheritance. In the case of its implementation we expect more war could not begin. This meant that the isolation in which Russia was on Karlovitskom Congress will long remain an essential element of the international situation. Moreover, West European countries would not have been bound by the war of the Spanish Succession, which would reduce the chances of success of Peter the Great Northern War. This uncertain situation demanded extreme caution by Peter in Moscow on Voznitsyn in Karlovci. Representative of the Commonwealth Policy and this time had nothing to do with the allied relations established at Peter with the Polish King Augustus II. His behavior has been openly hostile to Russia. Generally Karlovitsky Congress, which opened in October 1698, the Congress was not in the modern sense, when it comes to making the participants shared common solutions. Here there were bilateral negotiations alternate members of the former Holy Alliance with Turkey. In addition, each of the allies sought to achieve benefits through other than the Turks and enjoyed. Voznitsyn was not easy to carry out the instructions of Peter; ordered before leaving Vienna to accept the principle of conservation of each party has acquired in the war, not to give any of the conquered (Azov and the Dnieper towns), and in the extreme case, to postpone the peace treaty, limiting short truce. The situation was such that Turkey, ceding vast lands of Austria, wanted to with her support to get back what she had lost in the war with Russia. Intermediaries - England and the Netherlands - also helped her. " Austrians deliberately delayed the start of negotiations, trying to secretly, before the opening of Congress, the Turks agreed with all the points of the contract and to use only the Congress for its signing. V. with Embassy staff traveled on the Danube 9 Strugi 20 September, as Congress Karlovci opened only on 3 November. The talks were held behind Vladimir, and he was told about them when they are almost finished. V. protested: "He said that he was worthy of affairs now advise, and with him a great ambassador, Inasmuch as he belongs to, and they de, Ambassadors that darn, he did not announce anything." Convinced of the impossibility of joint and concerted action, B. joined with the Turks in confidential contacts. This contributed A. Mavrokordato - member of the tour. delegation to the Congress, with a ring-VA was more familiar in Istanbul (1681). Here is how he doom. Advisor about how he established secret ties with Mavrokordato "Another ambassador - Turska gpechanin Alexander Mavrokordat, translator and secretary in Tours terzhiman-bashi, know me much, as I had him in Constantinople, then at the Vizier in the same rank was and by him all things were made, and all the affairs of state, in order for the sake of seeing the Germans any shipment through the intermediary of their affairs mend, but we hardly that they say, from what we have here, and blind, and deaf, and nothing in the act make no can, find cherntsa Greek for evidence of Serbian Patriarch, faithful, disguised it in a secular dress, I sent him out of the Peter-Varadyna in Belgrade priyatstvenno letter to him, Dr. [P. B. Posnikov] written in Greek, recalling previous service and knowledge and that the wish of some cases have intercourse with him. " By observing extreme caution, Mavrokordato only the 2nd time in said .: "On matters, about which thou wilt be reminded to talk to us generally, general congress before and conversation, with all joy, if you please write them to me with all sorts of daring, keep your sacraments and the answer you give to everyone. " B. immediately sent Mavrokordatu profitable, in his view, the proposals for Turkey, "concluded a truce with Russia, and with the other members of the Holy League to continue the war; in these circumstances, the Ottomans easily achieve victory, for the Holy League, weakened by the release of her Russia would not be able to provide them with serious resistance. " However, this proposal, according to SM Soloviev, was too rustic to Mavrokordato went to him. Despite the "friendliness" to the Russian. Ambassador, the Greek "took the noble attitude of the partner in the negotiations, not in the rules which give up the previously given consent of Austria and Hungary ...", ending his message with the words: "... that they can not inflict nikotorymi measures, Inasmuch Ottoman Porte keeps his word." After trying to make Mavrokordato more compliant, V. made him a small tribute, but achieved nothing, t. To. "Gift" was too small to because it risks not only his career but also his head. This failure forced Vladimir to make concessions: now he insisted on a separate armistice with Russia. The first meeting of Russian. and tour. delegations took place on November 9th. Ambassadors presented one another truce, with the two sides have presented them with a large "request." Turks "called to follow the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the return for the sake of friendship with them captured Cossacks Azov, and for the sake of" conditions conducive "again to return to them of Azov; and they insisted on the destruction of the Dnieper towns that were in the hands of Russia. " B. also began to act "with a request." The draft peace treaty he demanded recognition for the Russian, not only of all that they have won (Azov, the Dnieper towns), but also the transfer of Kerch, free navigation on the Black Sea and even the rights of passage through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles, the recognition of the Protectorate, the protection of Russia for Pravoslav. Slav. population of the Ottoman Empire, the transfer of communication. .. Places in Palestine, etc. About the impression it made on the demand of the Turks, V. vividly portrayed in his "Stateyny list": "And when they heard the ambassadors of Tours, to the great surprise and suddenly came in the form of its variable and, that more of you can not be at each other look, so red steel. And a lot of time to be silent and whispered with him, they said that they did not order chayali ... And give the Kerch? He stands at the mouth of the Black Sea against Taman, and the king`s majesty is not pristoen, and keeps all the gates of the Black Sea and the Crimean island, and hail that great. And do not mention whether he`s in a name in a different than "In turn, B. strongly rejected the claims of the Turks:" On the Azov that was taken and given, the Veda, and now, so that they, gentlemen ambassadors of not only of the family said, and the thoughts of his were not "on the return of Azov and the Dnieper towns. After a long bargaining and mutual concessions, the Turks agreed to give Azov, Russian - abandoned their claims to Kerch and TD, however, proved to be a stumbling block Dnieper towns (Kizi-Kermen and OE), the return-to ryh demanded Turkey. B. could not give them away and asked to leave the question open, and to conclude a temporary truce, or, in his words, instead of a peace treaty, "little world". While the negotiations have not advanced V. single step, the Austrians and the Venetians were ready to sign contracts. Mediates the English and Dutch, as well as the Austrians threatened that he because of his obstinacy may remain with the Turks alone, t. To. The contracts other members of the Holy League will soon be signed. V. was in a difficult position. Winter is fast approaching, it became uncomfortable to live in a tent. "There is a great frost, - wrote V. November 5 - and the rain and the mud great; in days gone by were great winds and storms, which are not edinokratno posorvalo tents and trees broken and more at loggerheads; and then came the snow and cold, and there is nowhere to take the firewood to warm and nothing ... not endure that Nouzha, Polish ambassador left ... But I commit to the case, with the help of God, with his will not go anywhere. " In the next letter, he again has been criticized on the living conditions of the Embassy of life: "Stand in the desert in the human and in the horse feed and firewood scarcity immeasurable ... And it`s time the most winter and cold and Alexandria great, and the one at a Nouzha hardly will suffer ... ". Regulation B. "exacerbated the lack of guidance from Moscow - on his weekly reports he had received no response and so did not know what should be the last Grand concessions on his part than you can in the end to sacrifice for the desired result." His bewilderment and displeasure he poured out on paper. "Sami graciously deign to judge - complained great ambassador LK Naryshkin, - I`m not who labor in his tokmo generally his sovereign`s, actually, and odnoyu poor head like can be made. Make peace with the assignment of those cities - the trouble and stay in one war - and that does not seem to profit. " Thanks to the accurate calculation and hardness V. succeeded his. He knew that Peter needed peace with the Turks, but has gone on risk and flatly declared that Russia is ready to continue the war, and then gave way to the Turks. January 14. In 1699 the parties signed a cease-fire for a period of 2 years, for to-ryh was to follow the conclusion of the peace or a long truce. Settlement of disputes agreed to postpone for the future. Unity. clearly worded stipulation was that between Russia and Turkey on the 2-year cease hostilities. Ambassadorial people had to fear for his life and, t. To. By Razor