Born in 1888 in Kerch in a family of teachers seminary (according to other sources - the headmaster and his father - the extreme monarchist, subsequently joined the Union of Russian people). In 1903 he joined the RSDLP, Menshevik. For revolutionary activities excluded from school and the St. Petersburg Mining Institute. In the summer of 1906 he joined the fighting squad RSDLP, participated in the transport of bombs and the assassination of the mayor of Yalta General Dumbadze. In 1907, hiding from arrest, he went to Switzerland, where he became friends with Lenin and the Bolsheviks. While in exile, he studied in Geneva and Paris universities. He married a classmate - daughter of a wealthy Warsaw merchant, and lived mainly on funds sent by her parents. In 1917 he returned to Russia with Lenin. He was Commissioner of the Provisional Government of the Ministry of Labor, was responsible for the resolution of conflicts between workers and employers, opposing entrepreneurs and encouraging plants seizures. In August 1917 he was sent to the Ministry in Yekaterinburg, where he joined the RSDLP (b). Member of the Board of Yekaterinburg, the Military Revolutionary komiteta.S October 1917 - Secretary of the Ural Regional Bureau of Trade Unions, and chairman of the Yekaterinburg City Duma. In January - December 1918 Commissioner supply the Ural Council, in office supervised requisition food from the peasants. He took part in the shooting of the royal family (who was an active supporter). In particular, he signed the documents on the allocation of large amounts of sulfuric acid to completely destroy the bodies. At the same time, he said, it was on his initiative was spared the boy-cook, which was originally decided to kill among the royal servants.
In October 1917, Secretary of the Regional Bureau of Trade Unions and Chairman of the City Council in Yekaterinburg. In 1918, Commissioner supply the Ural Council. Voikov set such prices for food and fuel that the private trade in the Urals became impossible. This, in turn, led to the trade deficit and serious lowering of standards of living. During the ongoing nationalization Voykova Urals industry, former business owners were repressed. Severe measures were applied and the peasants who refused to perform back-breaking delivery.
Since March 1919 Deputy Chairman of the Board Centrosoyuz. Since October 1920 - Member of the Board of People`s Commissariat of Foreign Trade, a member of the board of trust "Severoles". One of the leaders of the Soviet government operations for the sale abroad of treasures of the imperial family, the Armoury and Diamond Fund (including in this way have been sold Easter eggs made by Faberge CG). He resigned from the Commissariat a strict Party reprimand for the systematic raskradyvanie valuable furs (who gave his numerous mistresses).
In 1921 Voikov led the Soviet delegation, which was agreed with Poland, implementation of the Treaty of Riga. In an effort to establish diplomatic relations at any cost, he gave the Poles Russian archives, libraries, art and material values.
In August 1922 he appointed a diplomatic representative of the RSFSR in Canada, but has not received agrement for involvement in the murder of the royal family. Since October 1924 - the Soviet ambassador in Poland. According to contemporaries, Voikov behaved Varshavekak active adventurer, to the point that the planned assassination of the head of the Polish Pilsudski (but not yet received permission from Moscow); he always held secret meetings with the Polish Communists, one of which (Leschinskogo) after escaping from prison, brought from Poland`s embassy motorboat; safes in the Warsaw Embassy in it when he was ambassador were littered with explosives and grenades.
7 June 1927 shot at the train station in Warsaw Russian emigre BS Koverda. Polish court sentenced Koverda to life imprisonment, but the June 15, 1937 he was released.
Voikov was solemnly buried near the Kremlin wall in Moscow.
In honor of Peter Voykova called the Moscow metro station "Voikovskaya" (located on the next to chemical plant them. Voykova), as well as four directions Voykova name. The participants of the public project "Return" asked the mayor of Moscow with a request to remove from the map of Moscow names regicides, including renaming the metro station "Voikovskaya" . In the Sverdlovsk region is one of the mines is named Voykova in Zaporozhye name Voykova named plant.