Date of Birth: 01/15/1861
dator ". In 1912, the August party of Social Democrats Conference (Vienna), was elected a member of the OK Mensheviks. During the 1st World War," centrist. "In the summer of 1916 was arrested and exiled to Astrakhan province (in the years Tsarist arrested 10 times).
After the February Revolution of 1917, he returned from exile on March 14 entered the party center - OK Mensheviks. As a member of the OK part (in an advisory capacity) in the All-Russian Conference of the Menshevik and united organizations of the RSDLP (Petrograd, May 7-12), made a report "Working question and the construction trade union." Points to the bourgeois-democratic character of the Russian Revolution, "in silukotorogo working class can not put today its immediate aim the socialist transformation of society", at the same time pointed out that because of the "exceptional role" of the proletariat, a relatively high level, "the development of capitalist relations and the labor movement "the results" can not be reduced only to establish "formal political freedom and popular sovereignty, and must inevitably also lead to the implementation of some requirements of the working class by means of broad social reforms aimed at the highest-possible improvement of its financial position and strengthening its position in the liberation struggle for the complete abolition of wage slavery "(Proc. conf. Menshevik. and merged, org-tions RSDLP, Pg. 1917, pp. 46-47). The newly elected OK, then OK in the Bureau and in the red." Working paper " . He worked in the Department of labor at the Petrograd RSD Council at the 3rd All-Russian conf Prof. unions (20-28 June), Rapporteur on freedom of association.....; Conference adopted its draft resolution, elected member of the All-Russian Garvey. Center, Council of Trade Unions. The delegate to combine, Party Congress (August.), A supporter of the right wing of the Mensheviks, elected member. The Central Committee of the "defencists".
After October. Revolution of Garvey joined the right "party. Opposition" in Menshevism, protested against the talks with Vikzhel with the Bolsheviks. 1 November, after the CC RSDRGKo) found it necessary to enter into negotiations to form a "homogeneous Sots. Prospect Island", including the Bolsheviks, came from the Central Committee. November 10 after the termination of negotiations with Vikzhel returned to the Central Committee. On Chrezv. RSDLP Congress (November 30 - December 7) declined from entering the Central Committee, criticized the new center-left hand of the party.
In 1918 he moved to Odessa, where he headed the Menshevik. org-tion: Editor gas. "Southern worker." In the years of Soviet. authorities have repeatedly arrested, in 1922 exiled to Siberia, he was given permission to travel abroad. Until the end of days maintained an uncompromising attitude to communism and to the "Bolshevik. Dictatorship."