Petr Bogdanov

Picture of Petr Bogdanov

Date of Birth: 05/20/1882

Age: 56

Place of birth: Moscow

Citizenship: Russia



The son of a Moscow merchant of the second guild, owner of several grocery shops and tenements Alexei Petrovich Bogdanov.

Wife (1908) - Alexander (Asya) Klementevna, nee Azarnikova. From a Jewish family, the daughter of a shoemaker. She took part in the revolutionary movement. She refused to move to Orthodoxy (which was necessary for the church marriage), then PA Bogdanov moved to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, which is more liberal than the Orthodox, belonged to the marriage of persons of the Jewish faith. In 1938 she was arrested, incarcerated in Karlag, in the second half of the 1950s was able to return to Moscow, where she died in 1960.

The sons - George and Alex, mechanical engineers, authors of the biography of his father, "Lest We Forget" (Wiley, 1990). The daughter - Xenia.


He graduated from the Commercial College Alexandrov (1899; with a gold medal), the Imperial Moscow Technical School (1909), a mechanical engineer. The proposal to leave it at one of the School Department of Chemical Faculty Council rejected "out of political considerations"). The perfect command of English, German and French,

The revolutionary activity

He actively participated in the student movement. Since 1901 - Member of the Executive Committee of the Students` Association, was the treasurer of the student cash kept at home hectograph, which printed revolutionary leaflets. In 1902 he was arrested and sentenced to six months in prison. Back in school, he continued his revolutionary activities. Since 1905 - a member of the Union Council of the Moscow higher educational institutions. In July 1905 he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), joined the Bolshevik her part. In 1905 he participated in an illegal Russian Congress of student organizations in Finland.

In the autumn of 1905 he was called up for military service, which took place in the rank of the conductor (NCO) in the Voronezh engineering distance (military unit for rail transport). At the same time he continued his revolutionary work, he was a member of the Voronezh Committee of the RSDLP, headed by its military organization.

In 1906-1908 he worked in the Moscow military organization, was a member of the Moscow Committee of the party, led by the Social Democratic student organizations of Moscow.


From 1909 he worked in the engineering section of the Moscow Department of Public Works. Supervised work on the conclusion of the trumpets tributaries Yauza and Neglinnaya rivers, participated in the construction of a brick arch bridge over the Yauza River in the village of Bogorodskoye and others. Worked on materials testing (conditions of use of different granite for paving streets).

Since 1910 - Head of the Moscow city gas network. It held its reorganization, focusing on cutting-edge expertise. The author of "Some of the data on damaged pipes Moscow city gas network, and data on the use of steel socket pipes."

During this period, he continued to participate in the activities of the RSDLP, in February and March 1911 was under arrest. According to the chief of the Moscow Police Department Colonel Zavarzin (February 1911), Bogdanov "enjoys an exceptional environment in the party a serious influence and has a greater well-connected intelligent worker."

Since the beginning of the First World War, he was drafted into the army at the end of 1914. Not long served as a translator in the Moscow military hospital for prisoners of war. He filed a report to send to the front, and in February 1915 he served in the second battalion of the Siberian railway at Przemysl. In October 1915 he was promoted to ensign. He was engaged in the restoration of bridges and in 1916 was sent to Moscow, where he read the Polytechnic Society report on the topic "Problems of reconstruction of destroyed bridges (from the experience of 1915-1916.)." Since June 1916 - Assistant Chief of the material part of the Third Indigenous Park horse field of railways of the Western Front in Gomel, in 1917 - the assistant to the chief of the park masterfully.

The political activities in 1917-1918

After the February Revolution of 1917, he resumed political activity. He was elected chairman of the military section of the Gomel council member of the presidium of the Executive Committee of the Board, Chairman of the City Council and chairman of the Revolutionary Guard Committee. During his speech, General LG Kornilov in August 1917 organized by the overlap of communication between Headquarters in Mogilev and Don, with the result that Kornilov supporters on their way to the Ataman of the Don Cossacks, General AM Kaledin were arrested. Supported the Bolsheviks came to power in November 1917 became the chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of the Gomel. After the dissolution of the City Council and the Revolutionary Committee worked in Gomel unions. In the spring of 1918 he was sent to the German occupation forces on the territory of the RSFSR.

Head of Economy

Since 1918 authorized the Supreme Economic Council to nationalize the chemical industry in the Urals and the North, has been appointed to the post at the suggestion of his friend on the technical college, engineer Karpov, head of the Department of Chemical Industry Supreme Economic Council. In 1918-1921 member of the board of the Department of Chemical Industry Supreme Economic Council. Since 1919 - Member of the Board of nationalized cement plants.

In 1919-1925 he headed the Council (General Administration), military industry Supreme Economic Council. In 1919 he was the chairman of the competition committee, considers the project of the first Soviet tank and the engine for it. The civil war conditions to implement the principles of the planned industrial cooperation between the military factories, which led to the release in 1920 in Sormovo first Soviet-made tanks. Since 1920 - Chairman of the Metal Division board of the Supreme Economic Council.

Active conductor NEP

In 1921-1925 Chairman of the RSFSR Supreme Economic Council. He was responsible for the first major Soviet construction - Construction of Kashira and Volkhov stations. He was one of the most active conductors of the New Economic Policy (NEP). Encourage the establishment of trusts like enjoying broad economic autonomy of public associations of enterprises, acting freely in the market and optimally using all factors of production. Defended trestovskuyu form of organization of production otstoronnikov "glavkizma" in favor of strengthening the central administration. Opposed rough administrative interference in economic processes. I thought that

right and good control, we can only put in the following principles: decentralization of the management of industry, the approach to plant and plant management body and at the same time, centralized management of the entire industry as a whole.

He was a member of the established Labour Council and the Defence Commission for the revision of decrees, systematization and development of legislation in line with the course of the NEP in the field of industrial construction and trade. Managed process partial transfer of private capital to small and medium enterprises. Under his leadership, the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council has developed and issued a special instruction on the procedure of renting state-owned enterprises tend to be inactive or slabodeystvuyuschih. In one of his works, wrote that

should be allowed to spin machines of the thousands and tens of thousands of factories and fabrichek small and medium that can provide the peasantry, but we can not start up because of all this little thing we do not have enough forces and resources, because we need to think about more large.

Since 1921, as Chairman of the Concession Committee worked on the concession agreements by foreign firms. I believed that

Attracting foreign capital is quite inevitable, as the equipment of whole branches of our industry is totally dependent on foreign countries because they had their own means were not created in Russia and was not supported.

He has published numerous articles on economic topics. At the end of 1925 he was sent to the three-month study trip abroad for industrial affairs at the enterprises of Germany, France, England. After returning from abroad in 1926 he was transferred from Moscow to the North Caucasus.

Defender interests of engineers

Considerable attention is paid to the involvement of intellectuals and improve their conditions of work and life. In the spring of 1921 he proposed a set of measures aimed at protecting the interests of engineering and technical personnel:

1. Complete the equation of engineers and technicians with the workers as full members of the relevant trade union (passed to us from the "white" have to endure the experience of a well-known). 2. Provide each of engineers and technicians of the right to a separate room to work. 3. The revision of tariffs and conditions of the food supply and other types to create conditions precluding the necessity of combining or go to the uncharacteristic studies, such as: horticulture, agriculture, handicraft, etc. 4. Extensive promotion of scientific and technical societies and publishing relevant.. magazines. 5. The publication of a special decree of the relation to the experts and their working conditions.

On the basis of proposals by Bogdanov in August 1921 it issued a decree "On measures to raise the level of engineering and technical knowledge in the country and to improve the living conditions of the engineering and technical personnel of the RSFSR", signed by Lenin.

Repeatedly petitioned for the release from detention of intellectuals, taking them under his bail. As a rule, they talked about engineers (eg, applied to the Cheka with a request to give him bail Gezentsveyga engineer, etc. in June 1921 asked for the release of "valuable indispensable worker" in the field of metal industry MA Alexandrov, in December of the same year. ), but there were other cases. So, in October 1921 Bogdanov vouched for the former director of the gymnasium Theodosia AP Kuczynski, justifying it by the necessity of his participation in the organization of the library at the Supreme Economic Council.

Work in the North Caucasus and in the United States

In 1926-1929 - chairman of the North Caucasian regional executive committee. He achieved allocation of appropriations in 1927 to begin work on the construction of the Volga-Don canal, which then were immediately started. He was one of the initiators of construction of "Rostselmash", with his active participation of People`s Commissars of the RSFSR approved a loan for the reconstruction came to the emergency state of water supply and sewage systems in Rostov-on-Don.

In 1930-1934 he headed the Joint Stock Company "Amtorg" (the Soviet trading organization in the United States). Establish links with US businesses, engaged in lecture activities, he studied American management experience. Activities Bogdanova contributed to the establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and the United States in 1933.

The last years of his life

After returning from the United States, according to the memoirs sons lived "with a sense of inexorable approach punishing cudgel. And yet ... it is up to the end trying to be active and honest. " In 1935-1937 - First Deputy People`s Commissar for Local Industry of the RSFSR. He continued to publish papers on economic issues. In an article in "Pravda", analyzing the American experience, he wrote:

What`s going on abroad ... not so important to know the secrets of the past as it is important to learn the same line of work and the methodology on which there is a development to quickly create their own technical culture ... must constantly learn something. So far we have paid in the US focus on heavy industry. But now we face the challenge to saturate the market of consumer goods, items of daily use.

In 1937 he was charged with possession of armory (which refers to three gift armourers - hunting rifle, shotgun and assault rifle), removed from their jobs and expelled from the party. Not long served as Deputy Director of the Institute of toys in Zagorsk.

arrest and death

November 22, 1937, was arrested. According to the memoirs of his cellmate LESNJAK BN, Bogdanov ( "wizened, selected, still quite sprightly man in a well-tailored suit from expensive tights (pants still remained on the fold)") in the chamber "kept closed, detached, reserved," and has been broken during interrogations. March 15, 1938, was sentenced by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR to prison. Sent to the camp, where he was transferred to Moscow for review of the case, was sentenced to death and executed.