Date of Birth: 1467
Pedro Alvares Cabral (1467 / 68-1526) was born from a family of nobles of old, took place at the throne of the Portuguese kings. Sam Cabral to 32 years has had the title of "His Majesty`s counsel" and was awarded the Order of Christ.
In the spring of March 9, 1500 Cabral, received command of 13 ships and fifteen hundred soldiers and sailors, went to second voyage to India by the same route, how it was to Vasco da Gama.
Follow the instructions da Gama, Cabral had to follow in the south-west to get around troubled Gulf of Guinea. He paused a few on this course ... and discovered Brazil. Was it the result of the opening of blind chance or the result of a secret plan - it is difficult to say. Sam Cabral (like Columbus before him) insisted that was heading to India, but that his ships had drifted a bit from the right course, and he was in South America.
In these words there is nothing improbable. For Dias and da Gama understood that the most convenient way around Africa is considerably west of its banks. Just look at the map to see how close to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde is the eastern projection of South America. We should not forget that Cabral soprovozhdalDiash, and in fact had a long experience of African voyages. He led the ships to the west, bypassing the headwinds blowing off the African coast. Winds and currents in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean is often carried away by the court to the west. And if in addition they were joined by a storm, we can safely assume that the Portuguese had drifted to the shores of Brazil.
On the other hand, some scholars point to the old Portuguese maps, which can be judged that the Portuguese guessed, or maybe they knew about the existence of the earth around the spot where the South America. We also know that from the time of Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese kept a closely guarded secret his findings. It is therefore possible that Cabral deliberately set out to find in South America.
Somewhat earlier Cabral Brazilian coast south of Cape St. Augustine reached the Spanish sailor Pinson. But Cabral did not know about it. He singled out one ship of its fleet and immediately sent him to Portugal to report his discovery.
Eastern tip of South America is in the range assigned to Portugal by papal bull and the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Under this agreement, Spain acquired the right to explore and conquer new lands not inhabited by Christians to the west and Portugal - to the east of a line drawn 100 leagues, that is 20 kilometers to the west of the Cape Verde Islands. It was the first attempt to divide the world between the European powers.
Discovery Cabral and Pinson, separated from one another by only a few months, stirred the rivalry between Spain and Portugal and marked the beginning of enmity and wars in South America does not stop for years.
Since the aim was to repeat Cabral da Gama`s voyage to India, then ten days later, he left South America, calling the open land of the True Cross Island *, and went to the Cape of Good Hope.
During bypass the Cape of Good Hope, a terrible storm broke out and four ships sank, and died at the same time a brave sailor Bartolomeu Dias. The surviving ships of Cabral brought to India, where he engaged in trade. But greed and extortion against the Portuguese regained their inhabitants Kalikuga. One of the fights ended in the massacre, and about fifty Portuguese were killed. Cabral started bombing the city. Then he had to sail with his fleet, and he continued torgovatv other Indian cities. With a cargo of gold and spices, he returned in 1501.
King never forgave Cabral loss of people and vehicles. For Cabral the reputation of the unfortunate captain. Kings persistent in their superstitions. On his return to Portugal, Cabral was removed from the affairs until his death in 1526, no longer receiving part in voyages. Rest of his life he spent alone in his name in the province of Bayram Beyksa.
In 1848, the Brazilian historian Francisco Adolfo Varnhagen identified his grave.
In 1968, Brazil and Portugal solemnly celebrated 500 years since the birth of Cabral. And in Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro are monuments to the mariner, the opening of which Portugal bestowed the most expensive jewel of its crown.
Cabral and the Viceroy of India, the creators of the Portuguese colonial empire, and d`Almeyda de Albuquerque - last among the big names of the Portuguese navigators.
Superiority in the great discoveries was transferred to Spain.
* King Manoel renamed the land found in the Holy Cross Island. However, it soon found there dyewood "Pau-Brasil" - and the country became known as Brazil.