Pavel Golubitskiy

Picture of Pavel Golubitskiy

Date of Birth: 03/16/1845

Age: 65

Place of birth: Tarusa

Citizenship: Russia


From his youth fond device electromagnetic equipment. In 1870 he graduated from the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St. Petersburg University.

In 1878 he created the original design of the phone, so-called phone-vibrator.

The main invention Golubitskoe fall 1880 for years.

In 1882 he constructed a multi-pole phone.

By this time the telephone was already organized in many cities around the world. However, it was of low quality, and in 1883 at the Munich exhibition of electrical expert committee report was given to that used by the system "suitable for the transmission of sound only at a distance of up to ten kilometers."

Golubitskiy studied the causes of poor performance telephony and found that the low sensitivity and poor stability of the phone to explain the influence of the magnetic field at the center of the membrane, which produces the oscillation node. Golubitskiy changed the design by removing the source of interference. This new phone design has remained very simple - the two poles of a magnet are arranged eccentrically with respect to the center of the membrane, that it did not cause additional disturbances.

In the same 1883 Golubitskoe phone capabilities have been demonstrated in Europe. Nancy - Trial link on the line Paris was organized. The Commission of the French Ministry of the Navy acknowledged phones Golubitskoe unsurpassed. Washer its design successfully passed the tests in the negotiations at a distance of over 350 kilometers.

In 1883, Paul M. Golubitskiy for railways developed a special telephone equipment, what was the corresponding certificate:

Given these things evidence of Pavel Mikhailovich Golubitskaya in the fact that in November last in 1883 they, Golubitskaya, was arranged by the Board of Governors of the Kursk-Kharkov-Azov railway. d. Central Bureau of three directions and three telephone stations with microphones Adair, phones Golubitskaya signals Abdank that perfectly fulfills its purpose, namely, from the office it was possible to call any station to enter into conversation with her, to connect to another station and at the end of their conversation to be notified of the call disconnection stations. It transmitted a clear and loud voice elevation does not harm the quality of voice, what the board shall notify their signatures under seal.

The certificate of the railway administration of the Kursk-Kharkov-Azov railway

Later Golubitskoe phones were installed on the Nikolaev railway, for official use only. In the same 1883 Golubitskiy improved microphone, typing microphone with coal powder.

In 1884 he began testing of train Golubitskiy phone allows you to communicate to the driver at any railway station.

In 1885, it was designed microphone with a comb arrangement coal, offered power system subscribers microphones of the total battery, located in the central office. Last innovation has allowed the creation of large urban telephone network.

In 1886, he invented Golubitskiy switch to pairing multiple phone lines.

Work on the telephone by the train was completed in 1888, the public test model were "Petersburg 2nd" on April 14 at the interval Nikolaev railway - "Obukhovo". Train apparatus was placed in a baggage car ended two stationary apparatus have been installed at the stations "Petersburg 2nd" and "Obukhovo".

The purpose of the test show that anywhere railway track can have a conversation with the two stations together and pootdelnosti. In the middle section of the way the train stopped. Onboard the machine is connected to a wire line railway telegraph and grounded. Communication with stations was established, which took less than 5 minutes, repeated tests in other parts of the connection time managed to reduce by half. When connected to a telegraph line used a special pole with a steel clamp on the end designed Golubitskaya.

During the test, both the station responded to the call immediately. The phone on the train two despatches were dictated. The stations were immediately recorded and spoke back to check. When the phone two hearing aids, making it possible to listen to dispatch two people at once, which reduces the chance of error. Then the train moved to "Obukhovo" station; there were talks directly to the station "St. Petersburg 2nd". To talk is not required to increase the special vote. Answers could be heard clearly, and quite clearly. Repeat the same phrase twice did not meet need. The Commission recognized the experience quite a success, as witnessed in the drafting of the protocol on the subject signed by all present.

For a long time the phone Golubitskoe became the main operational means of communication on the railways. 10 units were installed at the Nikolaev railway. There was also telephones uchastnok Moscow-Podolsk. Phone Golubitskoe firmly entered into operation.