Date of Birth: 06/29/1797
Place of birth: Tver
The eminent Russian metallurgist
One of the first scientists from Russia, Pavel Petrovich Anosov entered the history of science and technology as the founder of the doctrine of the founder of high-quality steel and metallurgy. He is the priority in the discovery of the lost once the secret of production of damask steel. Huge his contribution to the development of mining, metallurgy (including cast and wrought iron), intaglio, gold mining, geology and other scientific and technical fields and industries.
creative path PP Anosova
Pavel Petrovich Anosov was born in 1799 (date and month are not installed) in St. Petersburg in the family of collegiate assessor. His father served in the Berg-Collegium (later reorganized into the Department of Mining), from 1806, he was adviser to the Perm mining administration. Shortly after moving to the Urals Anosova parents died, children, including Paul, took over the education of maternal grandfather LF Sabakits - known Russian engineer who worked on the Izhevsk and Botkin state factories. In 1810, he identified the 11-year-old Paul in St. Petersburg Mining Cadet Corps at the "bureaucratic-koshtnoe place." This school was founded by the decree of Catherine II on October 21, 1773 as a Mining College, equated to the academy and subordinated Berg-board. In 1804 it was transformed into a mountain Cadet Corps, and in 1833 - at the Institute of Mining Engineers Corps. (Intensively developing the mining industry in the Urals and Siberia feels the need for highly qualified personnel.)
Pupils of the Mountain Cadet Corps received a good education: they were studying arithmetic, algebra, geometry, Surveying, mineralogy, metallurgy, painting, chemistry, mechanics, physics, French, German and Latin. When Alexander I taught them music, dance, fencing, were taken to the Hermitage, Kunstkamera, the Academy of Arts. A lot of time was devoted to practical lessons in chemistry, physics, flushing various ores. In the courtyard of the institution it was built "mine" with underground tunnels and excavations, and in his workshops and at the St. Petersburg Mint students themselves smelted metals. Collections Mining Corps constantly updated with new Ural and Siberian minerals, rare gold nuggets. It kept block of malachite, estimated an unprecedented sum for those times in 425 thousand. Rub., And found the cottage in the Nizhny Tagil platinum nugget weighing 10 pounds 54 spool (4.33 kg). Among the samples were a lot of products and semi-finished steel production: perfectly smooth on the thickness of the sheet metal, razors, cutlery, items of highly casting.
Attention Anosova particularly attracted elaborately dressed cold weapons: there were many Circassian and Turkish swords, Roman swords with intricately panache made from rare varieties of steel. His hit damask swords with beautiful patterns. On the question of how could the old masters to produce weapons with damask patterns, teachers invariably answered: "The secret of Damascus steel is lost!" Future scientist and master did not leave the idea to solve it, he thought about it at night, reading books about knights, armed damask weapons. One night, taking the candle, he went to the room to the window, where the damask blades. Long looked at them and sank into a chair, fell asleep. I woke up from the noise raised by a minister. Beside him stood a class inspector. On the morning of Anosov had to answer to the director of the body AF Deryabin. He was a man of reasonable, respected students, and the inspector said: "We can not punish the young man He is passionate about the question, whose resolution would make the honor of our country.".
Studied Anosov easily been in the top five of the best students. He had time for classes in science classrooms, reading and games, as he was fond of drawing, and took part in amateur theatricals, where plays were staged in foreign languages. In October 1816 Anosov made in the non-commissioned officers, and in 1817 he completed his studies with honors and was released from the Mountain Cadet Corps trainee in active service. For success, "rendered by him during the tests," he was awarded the Grand Gold and Silver medals, books and prints. Awarding of the Grand Gold Medal accompanied by the issuance of 500 rubles. "On the establishment,". His first acquisition was the microscope. Paul, of course, knew that his great compatriot MV Lomonosov for his chemical research for the first time used a microscope, and in anticipation of the nature of their work, got in the same device.
In November 1817, PP Anosov was sent to the factories of Zlatoust mining district (Southern Urals) - where he was to perform graduate work. As of that time, students of the Mining Cadet Corps issued "not just to active duty officers` ranks, as before, but with the title of the trainees. In this rank, they had to stay two years, using this time for going-over mines and factories and to accustom themselves to the official capacity. " Only after the research paper on reporting interns enrolled in the permanent service. The results of his observations summarized in a graduate thesis work "The systematic description of mining and factory production Zlatoust arms factory composed trainee P. Anosov, 1819".
In Zlatoust mining district were then iron-smelting and iron works: Zlatoust factory white (cold) weapons, Satka, Kusa and Artinsky and gold mines and Miass Miass inactive smelter. Center for Mining District was the Zlatoust plant on the river Ay, founded in 1754 Tula merchant-breeder Masolova. In 1811, Zlatoust factory settlement was renamed the city of Zlatoust.
In 1819, Paul Petrovich was appointed superintendent of the Zlatoust arms factory "in the department of decorated weapon", where he immediately set about the improvement of the production. His first innovation - the creation of more effective cylindrical bellows. The fruitful activity of the young expert drew the attention of the Department of Mining and Salt Affairs: in 1824 he was appointed the manager of the weapons factory, and from 1829 he was the assistant director of the factory. Since that time, he started his systematic research in the field of metallurgy, published scientific papers on the geology of the Southern Urals and steel heat treatment. In 1826, he published his work "Geognostic observation of the Ural mountains, lying in the district of Zlatoust factory", then the two began work on heat treatment: "Description of a new method of hardening steel in condensed air" (1827) and "On experiments in the hardening of steel items condensed air produced in 1828 and 1829. " and the article "On the Ural corundum" (1829).
Zlatoust arms factory was manufacturing saber type Damascus, known more under the name "Turkish". Anosov was convinced that the quality of these cavalry exported from the East, much higher than the so-called Damascus, is produced in Europe and the Zlatoust arms factory, and came to the conclusion that the art of manufacturing "is to this day a riddle for scientists and artists in Europe". Anosov looking for a clue: studying samples of authentic Damascus sabers, literary sources and comes to the conclusion that the extraordinary sharpness of the eastern sabers largely depends on the methods of hardening than the material from which they are made. His hypothesis was confirmed: by quenching experiments of ordinary steel knives in the condensed (compressed) air cylinder factory bellows shown that these steel knives sharper than those which were quenched in a conventional manner. Similarly Anosov made the hardening of the braid, produced in Artinsky factory, and got the same results: the braids are not only easy to mow dry grass, but, in his report, and "birch bushes could not withstand the sharpness of their blades." Methods for hardening of steel products in the condensed air were the basis for further research on the thermal treatment Anosov damask (Damascus) steel.
In 1831 Paul Petrovich was appointed director of the arms factory and at the same time its obligation superior plants Zlatoust mining district. Before him ample opportunities to conduct research and experiments on the disclosure of technological secrets of Damascus steel. Researches started it in 1828, lasted a total of 10 years and brilliantly been completed by the end of 1838
In Zlatoust weapon factory used an old, traditional method of producing wrought iron, which was based on the process of redistribution of iron into steel in the finery followed by Critz for hammers. Anosov abandoned production of Damascus steel and wrought iron made at the factory shop crucible cast steel, which had great advantages over welding. Moreover, a method of manufacturing cast steel of pre-cemented by iron carburizing its solid carbon, is applied in the West and some domestic factories, Anosov replaced its completely new technique - iron carburizing in a gaseous medium containing carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Production process wherein in the compound was carburizing and melting in an open crucible placed in a furnace wood coal, resulting in accelerated process of penetration (diffusion) of carbon in the molten metal. Such a method of making a cast high-carbon steel had a great scientific and practical value, it is widely used in domestic and global industry.
Research and experiments have allowed the scientist-Metallurgist scientifically based process of chemical and heat treatment of steel with gas carburizing of molten metal. Due to its many technical and economic advantages of gas carburizing it is still widely used in steel metallurgy. In the process of mastering the production of crucible steel Anosov went through all the stages of this latest technology. For the melting of cast steel by the novel process, he built a weapon factory special enclosure where they were constructed a special chamber air furnace, which allowed to reach the required temperature of melting steel.
As a result of this work, Paul Petrovich decided very important for its time manufacturing crucibles problem: they had to have a high fire resistance and strength. Zlatoust plant such crucibles subscribed to the German town of Passau companies at a high price - 25 rubles. a piece. Switching to cheaper domestic crucibles was fundamentally necessary for thus justified by the economic feasibility of the proposed method Anosov. Fire Passau crucibles determined by the presence of graphite in the clay from which they were made. In Zlatoust same graphite was not, and Anosov and his assistants developed his own recipe for the manufacture of refractory crucibles. Crucible mixture consisted of ten parts Chelyabinsk fireproof clay, five-part comminuted into a powder used and pre-treated slag pots and five pieces of wood-coal dust, sifted through a sieve. Zlatoust crucibles were more fire resistant than Passau, and costs only 44 kopecks. a piece. For pressovaniyatigelnoy mixture Anosov built a special press and a copper mold.
Even in 1825 during geological prospecting he found near the lake Big Elanchak, 15 miles from Miass, graphite deposit. Later graphite was tested and was better known kumberlandskogo that Zlatoust plant acquired in England. Thanks to the efforts of this remarkable and versatile specialist in Zlatoust mining district and other graphite deposits have been found.
Smelted in crucibles by the process of domestic Anosova cast steel is characterized by high properties and is not inferior to the famous English. Since 1830 Zlatoust plant started production of a wide cast crucible steel to the domestic industry. Already in 1833, the plant received 1660 pounds of cast steel, and for the period from 1830 to 1836 produced 4,600 pounds. Most of the metal used local arms factory for the manufacture of cold steel (mild steel), but also began to direct Artinsky plant for the manufacture of braids, tools, rapiers (medium hardness). Great demand she enjoyed the famous Nizhny Novgorod Fair and Ekaterinburg Mint willing to buy it for the production of minted matrices.
Anosov perfected the technology of manufacturing of cast crucible steel for eight years, at the same time engaged in the development of methods for the preparation of damask steel. It was a single process: research related to obtaining a cast steel, let him close to unlocking the secret of Damascus steel. The results of years of work by a cast steels Pavel Petrovich summarized in the published "Mountain Magazine" in 1837 work "On the preparation of cast steel", and in 1841 there was published his work "On the Bulat". This classic work has received wide recognition and has been translated into foreign languages.
The road to the secrets of Damascus steel has been long and difficult. PP Anosov wrote, "without sticking The more I got to know the dignity of samples, the more convinced that the early successes of my insignificant and that the transition from barely perceptible pattern to such a size, which is noticed in the precious blades of the ocean, which was due to swim for many years to. Bank and exposed to various contingencies. " But he brilliantly solved this problem. The scope and originality of his work would do honor to any scholar of the day, are busy developing an entirely new, mysterious problems. Anosova studies were inherently innovative. In the study of raw materials and finished products in 1831, he used a microscope. In the world of science on metals, it was a completely new methodological approach. The famous English scientist Henry Sorby used a microscope to study the microstructure of the steel and iron meteorites only in 1864
Comprehending the secrets of damask swords, Anosov main attention to the peculiarities of the figure in various grades of damask steel. Careful studies have shown that the pattern characterizes the crystal structure of metal - "kristallovanie" that is linked to the very nature of the metal "exterior signs - are the chemical composition of the investigation and of the physical conditions that are more or less conducive to the adoption of a certain kind of the nature of each kind bodies. " On this basis, Anosov identified five types of steel macrostructure: banded, struisty, wavy, mesh and crankshaft. Top quality -kolenchaty and mesh; lower quality damask had banded appearance, which "pattern consists predominantly of straight, almost parallel lines."
PP Anosov was first put into practice and spread the concept of macrostructure as metal Quality Score as well as the identification of the macrostructure of grounded etching and the use of the microscope to study the macrostructure as a research method. Thus, he made a huge contribution to the development of metallurgy. Scientists believe that the chemical composition of damask steel (and the main impurity - carbon) is an important factor affecting its properties. He also worked on the problem of the influence on the properties of steel of various metal additives. Taking into account the experience of M. Faraday, who studied the influence on steel platinum and aluminum, it is believed, however, that the "fusion of steel and platinum could bring significant benefits."
The results of their own studies have confirmed this view. Anosov studied the effect of manganese, silicon, chromium, titanium, silver, aluminum and platinum on damask quality steel and found that silicon leads to formation of graphite, manganese enhances the fibrous structure, chromium increases hardness and improves polishing silver reduces oxidation, gold modifies the color of steel. In fact, PP Anosov - the initiator of the production of special steels - titanium, manganese, chromium, and others, in that he was way ahead of his contemporaries.
In 1837 Damascus steel smelted from Pavel Petrovich made the first blade. From this time on the Zlatoust plant began mass production of damask swords and sabers. A few instances of them were sent to St. Petersburg, where they made a huge impression. The success Anosova reported to the emperor. January 20, 1837 Chief of the Corps of Mining Engineers declared "king pleasure for presentation to the first examples of Russian damask steel" (two swords and one "Circassian" saber). One of the swords presented to the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich. Later it was transferred to the Hermitage, where she is now.
In his work "On the Bulat" in the final part, PP Anosov wrote: "ending work in hope that soon our soldiers armed with damask swords, our farmers will cultivate the land damask tools, our craftsmen manufacture their products damask instruments; in short, I am convinced that the proliferation of ways to Bulatov preparation and processing, they displace obsolete all kinds of steel, is used now for preparation of products that require special sharpness and durability. " In 1836 he received the privilege on the invention of cast steel.
Working on the creation Bulatov, forging his famous blades, PP Anosov laid the foundations of the science of steel. He left behind a galaxy of talented metallurgists successfully continue his work. Among them, AS Lavrov, who discovered important laws of segregation began; NV Kalakutsky - creator of the theory determining the internal stresses in the metal; AA Wear Cove - organizer of open-hearth steel; PM Obukhov - discoverer of the method of mass production of high quality steel; DK Black - a prominent scientist in the field of metallurgy, metallurgy, metal heat treatment, the discoverer of the critical temperature associated with the phase transformation of steel at its heat treatment (Chernoff point).
PP Anosov also the founder of high-quality steel in the country, which now occupies a prominent place in the production of metallic materials with predetermined properties, is inextricably linked with what the progress of engineering and new technology, the development of the steel industry.
For achievements in the field of mining and metallurgical industry, the development of resources of the Urals and Siberia PP Anosov in 1825 was elected as a correspondent of the Scientific Committee on the mountain and part of the salt, established in St. Petersburg, and a member of the Zlatoust mining scientist society. In 1844 he became a corresponding member of the Kazan University, and in 1846 he was elected an honorary member of Kharkov University "for their efforts to improve the mining part." In general, the works "for the benefit of the domestic mining industry" PP Anosov received four orders.
In January 1834 Paul Petrovich was given the rank of Colonel Corps of Mining Engineers. In the same year it rich gold-bearing sands in the field which soon built the famous St. Andrew`s mine were found. He developed a method of melting gold in the sands of crucibles, blast furnace and the shaft furnace smelting, and in 1838 on the construction of the first mine Atlyanskom zolotopromyvalny machine Anosova - "self-propelled".
1839 in the creative life of Anosov was extremely fruitful: Moscow Agricultural Society awarded him a gold medal for the improvement of the production of the braid on the Zlatoust plant, the Department of Mining and Salt Affairs - Distinction for 20 years of service, a premium of 2 thousand rubles.. silver for savings at the plants 180 thousand. rub. and an increase in gold washing. In addition, he thanked "for successfully improving steel products" and published a decree on the use of tools weapons factories cast steel produced by the method of Anosov.
In subsequent years, Paul Petrovich, already in the rank of Major-General Corps of Mining Engineers, has been successful in finding deposits of graphite, improving zolotopromyvalnye machines and even invents a new, arranged on Miass gold fields, building on the Zlatoust plant six iron and cast iron feeder roads, ends project to improve the separation bloomery hammers at the factory. In early 1847 he was appointed governor of the Tomsk Civil and chief of the Altai mountain plants.
Four years later, 13 May 1851 Pavel Petrovich died in Omsk during a business trip. There he was buried, and his admirers have established funds for the tomb monument of marble and bars.
It survived several portraits of the great metallurgist, one of the best reproduced in our article. Life and multifaceted scientific activity is devoted to Paul Petrovich book IS Peshkina. The first edition of this biographical story was published in the series "Life of Remarkable People".
The idea of ??building a monument to the prominent Zlatoust Russian citizen expressed in connection with the 100th anniversary of his birth, but it was realized only in 1949, which marked an anniversary - 150 years since the birth of PP Anosov. According to the project of the Moscow sculptors AP Antropov and NL Stamm, architect TL Shulgina Zlatoust was set stately monument cast in bronze. On a high granite pedestal with gold stamped inscription: "Great Russian metallurgist Pavel Petrovich Anosov". At the same time the Council of Ministers of the USSR Academy of Sciences instructed the Bureau to publish a special edition of the works of the scientist and the establishment of the academy award system its name. Collected Works PP Anosov was published in 1954. The award named PP Anosov, awarded by the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences once every three years for the best work in the field of steel metallurgy, metallurgy and heat treatment, one of the first received Doctor of Technical Sciences AI in 1957 Skakov work "Quality of rails", and it was awarded the Doctor of Technical Sciences AA in 1996 Ilyin, EN Kablov (now Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences), KB Povarova for the series of works "Materials of the new generation of structural alloys based on intermetallic compounds."
200th anniversary of the birth of PP Anosov was widely celebrated in Zlatoust. October 27, 1999 in Moscow Polytechnical Museum held "Polytechnics readings dedicated to the 200 anniversary of the birth of PP Anosov and 160th anniversary of DK Chernov" and exposition has been deployed, where demonstrated rare documentary materials about their lives and activities. Commemorative activities continued until the end of the year.