Date of Birth: 07/26/1863
Place of birth: Parish Rozulskaya
Discoverer Walden inversion
Walden was born 14 (26) July 1863 in the parish Rozulskoy Livonia (Rozulas, Governorate of Livonia), which was then part of the Russian Empire (Russian Empire) - today is Latvia (Latvia). He grew up in a large peasant family, but lost his parents as a child and was able to get an education, but thanks to the financial support of older brothers. In 1876 he graduated from the district school in Cesis (C & # 275; sis), in 1882 - Riga Technical School (Riga Technical High School).
In December 1882 Walden became a student of Riga Technical University (Riga Technical University) and became interested in chemistry.
In 1886 he published his first scientific paper.
In April 1887 he was elected a member of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society (Russian Physico-Chemical Society). Then began his collaboration with Wilhelm Ostwald (Wilhelm Ostwald), who received the 1909 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
In 1888 Walden earned a degree in chemical engineering, stayed at the Chemistry Department as an assistant, and began to compose `Stereochemical reference `published in 1894. While Walden was preparing this guide, he had to spend a lot of chemical experiments, which resulted in 57 scientific articles only structural chemistry, published from 1889 to 1990 in Russian and foreign journals. During the summer holidays in 1890 and 1891 he went to Walden Ostwald University of Leipzig (University of Leipzig) and in September 1891 he defended a dissertation for the degree of Master. Ostwald asked him to stay in Leipzig as a private lecturer, but Walden declined, fueling hope to make a bright career in Riga.
In the summer of 1892 he got a job as an assistant professor of physical chemistry, a year later, he defended his doctoral thesis, and in September 1894 he became a professor of analytical and physical chemistry Riga Polytechnic Institute, where he worked until 1911, and from 1902 to 1905 was the rector of the institute.
In 1895 he made his most striking discovery, later called the Walden inversion or inversion, and the issue has become osnovoyego dissertation defended in March 1899 at the University of St. Petersburg (St. Petersburg University). After that Walden is very interested in the electrochemistry of non-aqueous solutions, and works on the subject brought him great fame. Thus, Walden was considered a candidate for the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1913 and 1914. In addition, he was a very gifted teacher, able to captivate his audience the most complex topics.
In May 1910 Walden became a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences), and in 1911 was invited to head the chemical laboratory of the Academy and held the post until 1919. In Riga, there were more opportunities for research, and Walden are constantly traveled between Riga and St. Petersburg. In 1915, because of the difficulties caused by the First World War, Walden has reduced its research and focused on the teaching and administrative work. Then, due to political unrest in Latvia, Walden with his family moved to Germany (Germany), where he was appointed professor of inorganic chemistry at the University of Rostock (University of Rostock), where he worked until 1934. In 1924 he came to Riga and read lectures. He was offered a high position in the field of chemistry in Riga and Petrograd, but he refused. Despite this, in 1927 Walden became a foreign honorary member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Academy of Sciences of the USSR).
In the last years of his life Walden collected a unique library that had more than 10 000 volumes, focusing on the history of chemistry. Alas, the house of the scientist and his library were killed during the bombing of Rostock British aircraft in 1942. Walden moved to Berlin (Berlin), and then settled in Frankfurt (Frankfurt) and taught at the local university. The end of World War II, he met in the French zone of occupation, and the University of Rostock was in the Soviet zone of occupation, and Walden was at an advanced age without any source of income. He lived on a modest pension, collected German chemists occasionally lectured and wrote his memoirs. He died on January 22, 1957, at the age of 93 years.