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Otto Bismarck

Picture of Otto Bismarck

Date of Birth: 04/01/1815

Age: 83

Place of birth: schonhausen

Citizenship: Germany

Background

BISMARCK Otto Eduard Leopold von schonhausen (Bismarck Otto Eduard Leopold von Schonhausen) (April 1, 1815, schonhausen - July 30, 1898, Friedrichsruh). Prussian-German statesman, the first Chancellor of the German Empire.

Start a career

Coming from a Pomeranian Junkers. He studied law at Gottingen and Berlin. In 1847-48 MP 1 and 2 of the United Landtag of Prussia, at the time of the 1848 revolution advocated armed suppression of unrest. One of the organizers of the Prussian Conservative Party. In 1851-59 representative of Prussia in the Bundestag in Frankfurt am Main. In 1859-1862 the ambassador of Prussia to Russia, Prussia in 1862, Ambassador in France. In September 1862 during the constitutional conflict between the Prussian monarchy and the liberal majority Prussian Landtag, Bismarck was called by King William I of Prussia to the post of Minister-President; stubbornly defended the rights of the crown and made to resolve the conflict in its favor.

The unification of Germany

Under the leadership of Bismarck`s unification of Germany by the "revolution from above" was implemented as a result of three victorious wars of Prussia: in 1864 together with Austria against Denmark in 1866 against Austria in 1870-71 against France. Keeping Junkerdom commitment and loyalty to the Prussian monarchy, Bismarck was forced at this time to link their actions with the German national-liberal movement. He managed to embody hopes of rising bourgeoisie and the national aspirations of the German people, to ensure a breakthrough in Germany on the way to an industrial society.

Domestic policy

After the formation of the North German Confederation in 1867, Bismarck became bundeskantslerom. The proclaimed January 18, 1871 German Empire, he received the highest office of the Imperial Chancellor, and in accordance with the constitution of 1871 practically unlimited power. In the first years after the formation of the Empire Bismarck had to reckon with the liberals, the parliamentary majority. But the desire to provide Prussia dominant position in Empire, strengthen the traditional social and political hierarchy and his power caused constant friction in relations between the Chancellor and the Parliament. Established and carefully guarded by Bismarck system is a strong executive power personified by him, and a weak Parliament, repressive policy towards the workers` and socialist movement did not meet the objectives of rapidly growing industrial society. This was the root cause of the weakening position of Bismarck to the late `80s.

In 1872-1875 on the initiative and under pressure Bismarck had been taken against the Catholic Church laws depriving the clergy the right supervision of schools, on the Prohibition of the Jesuit order in Germany, the mandatory civil marriage, the abolition of articles of the constitution provides for the autonomy of the Church and others. These activities m. n. "Kulturkampf", dictated purely by political considerations fight against particularistic-clerical opposition, severely restricted the rights of the Catholic clergy; attempts to cause insubordination repression. This led to a distancing from the state of the Catholic population. In 1878, Bismarck had the Reichstag through the "emergency law" against socialists, prohibiting activity of the Social-Democratic organizations.

In 1879, Bismarck pushed through the Reichstag protectionist customs tariff. Liberals were pushed out of big politics. The new course of economic and fiscal policy consistent with the interests of the big industrialists and large landowners. Their union has taken dominant positions in political life and in public administration. In 1881-89 Bismarck has conducted "social laws" (about insurance of workers in case of illness and injury in the event of old-age pensions and disability), laid the foundations of social security of workers. At the same time he demanded stricter anti-working class policies and for 80s. successfully sought the extension of "the exclusive law". The dual policy towards workers and Socialists prevented their integration into the social and political system of the empire.

Foreign Policy

His foreign policy of Bismarck built on the basis of the situation in 1871, after France`s defeat in the Franco-Prussian war and capture by Germany of Alsace and Lorraine, which became a source of constant voltage. With the help of a complex system of alliances that ensured the isolation of France, Germany`s rapprochement with Austria-Hungary and the maintenance of good relations with Russia (League of the Three Emperors of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia in 1873 and 1881, the Austro-German alliance in 1879, the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austro Hungary and Italy in 1882; Mediterranean agreement in 1887 between Austria-Hungary, Italy and England and "reinsurance treaty" with Russia 1887) to Bismarck managed to maintain peace in Europe; The German Empire has become one of the leaders in international politics.

Decline career

However, in the late 80s, this system began to crack. It was planned rapprochement between Russia and France. The colonial expansion of Germany, which began in the 80s, aggravated the Anglo-German relations. Russia`s refusal to renew the "reinsurance treaty" in early 1890 was a major setback Chancellor. Failure of Bismarck in internal policy became dip l its transformation plan "exclusive law" against socialists in permanent. In January 1890 the Reichstag refused to renew it. As a result of conflicts with the new emperor, Wilhelm II, and with the military command on foreign and colonial policy and the labor question was Bismarck dismissed in March 1890 and the last 8 years of his life in his estate Friedrichsruh.

Favorites:

Nothing ever plotting against Russia, because your every trick she would answer his unpredictable folly.

Even a victorious war - an evil that must be prevented peoples wisdom.

Woe to the statesman, who did not care to find a basis for the war, which after the war still retain its value.