Oleg Gazenko

Picture of Oleg Gazenko

Date of Birth: 12/12/1918

Age: 88

Place of birth: a. Nikolaevka

Citizenship: Russia


Born December 12, 1918 in the village of Nikolaevka Stavropol Territory. Father - Gazenko George G. (1894g.rozhd.). Mother - Gazenko (Nikitin) Larisa (1895g.rozhd.). Wife - Tolmachevskaya Olga (1918g.rozhd.). Son - Alexander (1941g.rozhd.). Daughter - Larissa (1944g.rozhd.).

In 1941, OG Gazenko graduated from the Military Department of the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute and medic rank 3rd rank (captain of medical service) together with the whole issue went to the front. Throughout the war he served the chief of army hospital 197 Battalion airfield services of the 15th Air Army of the West, South-Western, Bryansk, the Baltic and Belorussian fronts. He was awarded orders and medals.

After the war, OG Gazenko in 1946-1947, was trained at the Military Medical Academy (Leningrad) in the department of physiology in aviation medicine laboratory, where under the direct supervision of large physiologists - Academician Colonel-General L. Orbeli and Professor Major General M. Brestkin studied the problems of altitude physiology and condition of higher nervous activity in hypoxic conditions. In 1947 he was appointed to the Institute of Aviation Medicine of the USSR Ministry of Defense and worked his way from the researcher, head of laboratory and head of the department to the deputy head of the Institute for Research.

Experience physiologist and physician assisted OG Gazenko in solving problems such aircraft as the flight crew work in adverse weather conditions. Therefore, when it started active development of our aviation Arctic and arid areas of the country, it is as a flagship medical doctor and head of a research group in 1948-1950 he participated in the high-latitude air expeditions Air "North Pole-2, 3, 4", often worked at the drifting stations, the islands and the coast of the Arctic ocean, as well as in the Karakum Desert, and other hard to serve areas of aviators. In 1951-1952 he participated in the fighting in North Korea.

Since 1955, OG Gazenko focused its efforts on research in space biology and medicine, becoming one of the ideologists, leaders and active performers of the research program on biological artificial earth satellites. The results of the biological and physiological studies on living organisms in space flight and ground-based laboratory experiments with simulated space flight a number of factors have allowed to justify the possibility of human space flight, and when preparations for the flight of Yuri Gagarin, OG Gazenko took it directly involved.

Since 1969, the decision of the CC CPSU and the Council of Ministers OG Gazenko assigned to the 3rd Main Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR as the director of the Institute of Biomedical Problems, and served in that capacity until 1988.

In this position, fully demonstrated his great scientific experience, knowledge and organizational skills. The main scientific works O.G.Gazenko in this period were devoted to fundamental problems of space biology and medicine. Studies of human body`s responses to space flight conditions and disclosure of weightlessness biological mechanisms of action on living organisms allowed to justify the principles and methods of human protection from the effects of unfavorable factors of flight, to create a system of measures for the maintenance of health and the health of space crews in flight and return to the conditions of the earth`s gravity, and a system of medical support of astronauts and preventive procedures to maintain their health and safety.

Since 1978, OG Gazenko working on justification and implementation of complex physiological, hygienic and psychological measures to ensure the implementation of long-term space flights.

OG Gazenko - an outstanding organizer of science. On his initiative, and a series of biological studies on specialized biosatellites was carried out under his direct supervision, "Cosmos". In these studies, the scientists took part in Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, the USA, France and other countries.

For a quick and effective solution to the problems of space biology and medicine OG Gazenko managed to attract the best specialists of the Academy of Sciences, higher education and other departments. For several decades, Oleg G. united work of these organizations and in many cases is the de facto leader of such works.

Among the most important publications of OG Gazenko - books "Animals in Space" (1960), "The Life and Space" (1961), "Space cardiology" (1967), "Mankind and Space" (1987), etc. Convinced of the need. wide exchange of information on biomedical problems of space exploration, OG Gazenko actively participated in the organization in the light output of a multivolume series publication "Problems of space Biology" (since 1963 to the present has been published more than 80 volumes), as well as edition 1969 of the magazine "Space biology and medicine", in which Oleg G. in was editor for many years. He is the initiator and co-editor of two Russian-American working publications on space biology and medicine - "Fundamentals of Space Biology and Medicine" (in 3 volumes, 1975), editor of the journal "Advances of Physiological Sciences", managing editor of the series "Scientific research results in space flights "a member of the editorial boards and editorial boards of several journals (" Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences. biological Series, "" Science and life "," Aerospace and environmental medicine ", etc.), chairman of the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on space biology and medicine.

In 1988, OG Gazenko retired in the rank of the medical service lieutenant-general.

In 1987, OG Gazenko was elected president of the All-Union (now Russian) Physiological Society named Pavlov and to date holds this responsible post. For many years he is a member of the Board of the International Fund named after Galileo Directors (US, 1982), one of the committee leaders "Bioastronavtika" International Astronomical Federation. He participated systematically organized international symposia "Man in Space".

Multilateral and very fruitful scientific and social activities OG Gazenko widely, including international recognition, as evidenced by their well-deserved high awards and titles. He is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1976), the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (1992), the International Academy of Sciences and the International Academy of Astronautics (1965), honorary member of the Tsiolkovsky Academy of Astronautics (1998), the US (1987) and Polish (1976) physiological society, an honorary professor Raytovskogo University (Dayton, Ohio, USA, 1988), an honorary doctor of the Russian (1997) and Poland (1982), the military medical Academy, a member of the Order of the Dolphin, which brings together leaders who have made a significant contribution to the establishment of an international intellectual cooperation.

Oleg G. awarded many high state awards. He - the winner of the USSR State Prize (1976), Prize of the Russian Federation (1997, for his research on biosatellites), the International Prize for Space behalf of D. and F. Guggenheim International Academy of Astronautics (1976), the Association of Space Explorers Prize (1991, for his work by bioastronavtike), L. Bauer Prize (USA, 1978, for the development of bioastronavtiki), named after R. Lovlessa Award (USA, 1990, for his work on space medicine) name P.N.Demidova Prize (1998, for the development of space physiology ). O.G.Gazenko awarded the Gold Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pavlov, a gold and silver medal J. Purkinje Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (1986), was awarded the Order of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences for his services to science, as well as a medal named after N. V. Timofeev-and the medal of the Russian geographical society.

In 1989-1991 he was deputy of the USSR, was a member of the Committee on Science and Education of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, was a member of the Commission to investigate the events in Tbilisi on April 9, 1989.

Currently OG Gazenko - Adviser of the Russian Academy of Sciences at the State Scientific Center of Russia "Institute of Biomedical Problems," which continues to actively and work productively. At the Institute he leads the work of the specialized Academic Council on doctoral theses Council. In addition, in the department of physiology of RAS it performs the function of Deputy Academician-Secretary of. As part of the Russian-American expert Oleg G. Board takes part in the evaluation of measures to ensure safety of works on creating the International Space Station.

Free time at Oleg G. has always been enough. At a young age he was interested in hiking, canoeing, kayaking, rock climbing (a climbing instructor profession). Currently engaged in horticulture and floriculture. Favorite writers - Chekhov and O`Genri and Jules Verne and A.Klark. In music, he prefers jazz and the classics: G.Miller, L.Armstrong, E.Fittsdzherald, F.Sinatra, Grieg. In recent years, interest in history, especially the history of science and space, as well as their development prospects.

Lives and works in Moscow.