Date of Birth: 05/02/1943
Place of birth: Utah
Citizenship: United States
Thirteen men who changed the world
`Pong` was the brainchild of his passionate desire to create a slot machine with a massively popular game. Nolan has resorted to the name `Pong`, since this sound was making video-racket impact lo-ball video. This name is also contained an allusion to the fact that the rules were based on the principle of ping-pong. Nicknamed `King Pong` also pays tribute to Nolan, a recognized founder of the video game industry in America.
Nolan - a real freedom-loving joker who often way home when he was a good game, or on the way he met a friendly lady. He had a playful and frivolous temperament and teenager, it seemed that only disguised as a bearded, imposing (6 feet 4 inches), middle-aged man. Is no different from the children`s love Nolan games and boyish spirit was his guide on the way to the creation of the video game industry. It was his favorite thing (as described Horatio Alger Island). Without positive self-confidence Nolan would never have been able to attract a loyal following, with which subsequently carried out their innovative ideas.
`Pong` was Nolan`s second attempt to enter the video game market. The first was a game called, which failed miserably because of the complexity and high cost. To play the enclosed instructions are too difficult for the average player video clubs. As he contemplated the simplicity makes it understandable even for beginners. Launched in 1972, it became a hit in 1973 and 1974. `Pong` changed the world of video games in many ways. It has changed the standards of gaming machines, it has strengthened the place reserved video games in society, and attracted a lot of consumers. She was a pioneer of mass market video games. `Pong` changed the essence of the video shop games, home television (cartridge), computer (PC) games, and recently published games for adults (` Star voyny`) that are played Pentagon and NASA.
`Pong` was not the first computer video game. It all started with a home television game `Odyssey Magnavoks`. Nevertheless, it is `Pong` became the first mass production of a video game. She made a revolution and actually established a new industry. `Pong` also among the first video game was recognized experienced players and computer experts.
The innovative technology
Ubiquitous machines like `pinboll` dominated the industry of slot machines in the early 70s. They were large electromechanical machines, technologically inflexible, requiring intensive care, and equipped with an imperfect image transfer system. Electromechanical manufacturers, being interested in maintaining its position in this type of industry, refused to apply the technology, born out of their bowels. This short-sighted way of thinking industrial leaders gave a chance to the new companies that have seen the possibility of newly emerging new technologies based on the use of chips.
Silicon Valley companies were adept and understand the convenience of new technology-based integrated circuits. This has allowed them to become pioneers in the creation of electronic video games. According to this same scenario events developed in other industries, the experts were amazed power integrated circuits and opportunities to increase the amount of memory. Production of calculators, electronic watches and phones have been through the same metamorphosis as the games industry in the mid-1970s. In 1971, the `Intel` invented the microprocessor. This event happened to coincide with the undertakings `Atari` and technological breakthroughs in electronics was the catalyst for the development of the games industry.
The video game has become the stepchild of playing chip technology appeared, which made it possible to put a greater and greater amount of memory on smaller carriers, called chips, which are becoming slimmer in turn. Revolution in the microcosm of microcomputer technology has been a driving force in the development of video games, pocket calculators, electronic watches, personal computers and electronic telephone. All these products were created in the mid-70s, becoming byproducts of the new technology. Those firms that have failed to adapt to the world of electronics, did not survive. Bushnell was a child of technology, and so he became the father of the video game industry.
Bushnell and `Atari` actually created three segments of the video game market. The first belonged to - the game for video clubs, which entered the market in 1972. Second, home TV version, designed for home TV sets. In 1974, this game is only sold by the company which had exclusive rights. The third segment is engaged in the cartridge is loaded using the gaming system. This principle allows the consumer to change the game and share them, and had something in common with the invented at the time the idea to change the blade instead of a razor. Video-computer system has become the industry standard, and dominated the market of home TV games from 1977 to 1983. It was the forerunner of today`s games have made game cartridges compulsory subject in the list of Christmas gifts for children.
First, in 1972, Nolan intended to sell the idea of ??the game `` Pong` company Bally Miduey`. Initially he saw his role as a designer of video games and wanted to sell the license for their production of large manufacturers such as `Belli`. Thus began `Atari`. Going to Chicago to show `` Pong` executive heads Belli`, Nolan was sure that they see the potential of `Pong` and buy a license. But he got the same support, which had Steve Jobs and his Apple `Kompyuteru` only four years later. Experts have rejected the offer, making a hopeless conclusion:
By setting the game in Keps` `Andy, Nolan took this as a test of` Pong` attraction for young people. He wanted to prove that it will cause no less interesting than the bulky slot machines. If successful, the game was supposed to bring the amount necessary to pay for investments distribyuterskih for twelve - sixteen weeks. This meant that `Pong` had to earn 40-50 dollars. in Week. This would allow it to compete with the old slot machines. Owner `Keps` Andy called him two days later and said," Take away the damn game It does not work and upset my customers. ".
Nolan armed with a variety of chips and testers, the necessary instruments in order to repair the game, but did not find any fault. The last thing he decided to test the mechanism of receiving and storing coins. When he opened the box with coins, quarters scattered in different directions - there have been 1200 pieces. `Pong` broken because a success. Capacity for money was designed for a maximum of 300 coins in a quarter that was considered unheard of collection and it was not possible even a single game. Nolan`s enthusiasm knew no bounds. Experience, delivered in `Andy Keps`, exceeded all his expectations and made him forget about the license and immediately seek exclusive rights to manufacture.
First `Atari` is a financial nightmare. Lack of financial resources was accompanied by an even greater lack of production equipment and management experience. Nolan hired in the production line of bikers, hippies, misfits and hooligans, has at least the minimum qualifications. Go through the production area was like that to overcome the level of the game `Star voyny`. The usual dress was tight T-shirt and sandals. From the long-haired, casually dressed workers walked smell, reminiscent processing plant fertilizer. The mood was cheeky and crazy. Dinner parties became regular beer, and began assembling a new part served as a good enough reason to stop work for the day.
The spirit that prevailed in the `Atari` was matched kurazhlivomu temperament Nolan. Once, when elegantly dressed customers have expressed their desire to explore the plant, Bushnell had his motley servants to hide in large cardboard boxes and packaging are not shown until the end of the tour. In Silicon Valley `` Atari` earned a reputation chudes` Valley. This reputation has been as strong as Gestalt psychedelic, which in those days extended only fifty miles to the north, in San Francisco. However, the demand for `Pong` was so high that` Atari` overcome and incompetence and inexperience, and lack of finance. She was one of a very small number of Silicon Valley companies, is gaining momentum in these dark days of 1973 and 1974. It grew very quickly to escape from bankruptcy only thanks to the enthusiasm. Bushnell introduced the twelve or sixteen hour day and almost did not pay a salary.
The first salon version of `` Pong` Atari` released in November 1972 and made a profit of $ 3.2 million in 1973. Dollars. eight thousand copies at the price in 1200 dollars was sold in 1974. income amounted to 9.6 mln. USD. The best at the time parlor games brought by 45-60 dollars. in Week. And the average income is about 200 dollars. in Week. It was a revolutionary change in the stagnant industry of slot machines.
Video games have become a success and attracted a lot of competitors, new distributors and new players. Due to the popularity of these games can be found on college campuses, airports, and other places, and their fate was so different from the fate of the old slot machines, which stood alone in the empty halls. Competitors bred faster than the game, and highly contributed to the expansion of new markets. Interestingly, `Midway Belli` still licensed` Pong` and actually released for 1973-74. more games than `Atari`.
`Atari` made a clip of new games:`
Video games have become a favorite pastime of most American families. Fathers and sons played together in video salons and hotels. Area of ??games selected to ensure that they are available for different groups of players - business, family, college students. New high-tech, complex games contributed to both intellectual and physical development. Researchers have proved that the players improves the coordination of movements. Times uncrowded gaming shops gone. Microprocessor technology has changed the way slot machines and expanded markets by involving students (university game centers) and families (game rooms in traditional local family vacation, for example, pizzerias).
Annual revenue exceeded billion mark in 1981. By the tenth anniversary of the 1982 `Atari` celebrated the achievement of two billion income, becoming a leader in fast-growing companies. `Atari` held 80 percent of the market and supplied games 17 percent of American families. In 1981, when the video game craze has reached its peak, the annual income videopromyshlennosti was US $ 6 billion.., Which is more than twice the box office Hollywood films. It is twice more than the annual income of all combined casino in Las Vegas, three times more revenue from television demonstrations and fees from the sale of tickets to professional basketball games, baseball and football, four times more revenue from live performances and produced discs of rock stars. Seventy-five thousand man-years were carried out for video games in only one this year. Dream Bushnell absorbed generation of psychology and made the game fun.
Like Wozniak, Jobs and Gates Morita, Bushnell was a child of microprocessor technology. He was born in 1943 in Kliarfilde, Utah, and raised in a family of Mormons, revered European work ethic. His father was a bricklayer, had his case was selflessly devoted to work, brought in Nolan same attitude toward work. His motto was: "work hard and you can achieve a lot." Nolan learned that lesson well. He was a great lover of soldering, and fashioned primitive radio in ten years. He repaired televisions, radios, washing machines, and worked part time in different places during the school graduation. After one day, he lost the poker money intended for tuition in college, he had to get a job in the "Laguna Emyuzement Park" (Laguna Entertainment). Nolan worked as a greeter, sensed weight, played pitch with milk bottles. This experience brought him a passion for games, as well as helping to understand the way of thinking, the desire and motivation of the players. It is hard to overestimate the impact that this has had on his early experience further progress in the promotion of computer games.
During his studies at the University of Nolan he worked as manager of the sector of games in the park. In his own words, he was a poor student. At this time, Bushnell stuck nickname, pursued him, and when he grew up. Without a doubt, the game had to be his way to success. They have become the Achilles heel of its formation, as well as for Akio Morita, the founder of `Soni`. Every free minute to work in the park, he spent the games. The games were to blame for the fact that Nolan received the lowest scores in the diploma on completion of university faculty of electronics of Utah (1968). After failing to get a job at Disney, he got a job as an engineer - the designer `Ampeks`, located in Mountain View, California - in the heart of Silicon Valley.
Business and personal survival
The first game was Nolan Speys` `Computer (Computer Space), which he made while working as an engineer-designer in` Ampeks`. But it was a commercial failure. He concluded that the game was too complicated and the world is waiting for a simple game that does not require instructions. Those games that he and his friends played on the system computers, engineers were available, but not the mass consumer. After analyzing the problem, he decided, "I must create a game where the rules are clear to anyone, something so simple that any drunk in a bar able to play it." `Pong` matched this criterion.
By this time, Nolan joined the `Nutting Assoshieyts`, Mountain View. When the concept of `Pong` finally formed, he departed from there and, together with Ted Dabney, a former engineer Ampeks``, `Atari` organized and engaged in the design of video games. Then he offered to play `Bailey Miduey`, Chicago. But they were not interested and did not believe that it has a market potential. Their poems were playing old-style machines with paddles, baskets, solenoids, relays, and mechanical scoreboard. They were not impressed by the game, which had no moving parts and does not fit into their view of the consumer market.
And then Bushnell and Dabney made 250 dollars. and started to produce `Pong`. Their only capital was the brains. Inflexible Bushnell began his journey, taking a loan and purchase items. He has managed to sign a couple of contracts and made from `Wells Fargo Bank` opening a credit line in the amount of 50,000 dollars. These investments and build `Atari` until until in 1975 the capitalist Don Valentino, organized a consortium of investors, has invested US $ 600,000 in it. Until that time, `Atari` survived only thanks to the resourcefulness of its creators.
In the 70s the industry was dominated by machines parlor games with a game of bowls. These electromechanical devices, triggered by lowering the coin, did not undergo any changes for many years. High-tech video equipment carried Bushnell intellectual load and were focused on players of different generations.
Everything was new: the technology, and the game itself, and the players, and the seats reserved for games. These new electronic games are a byproduct of the microprocessor revolution, which set a precedent for the emergence of video games and video salon industry.
Bushnell, of course, was a true innovator, which was an end in itself to create, invent, and to make changes in life; as soon as he got the idea of ??recognition, he took up the creation of the next big innovation. For two years, he nurtured in his head a new project - home version of the game, the second market innovation, which has promoted the game directly into the homes of Americans. The game captivated screen home TVs. In 1975, the `Sirs` received exclusive rights to market, sold 150,000 copies of the home version. At this time, Nolan`s inventive mind has come up with a new cartridge is loaded through the game - video-computer system (VCS), presented in 1977.
VKS trial balloon has become a new type of game that allowed to evaluate its compliance with the requirements of video clubs visitors. It was a precursor to the popular video clubs and games `` Space PekMen` zahvatchiki`, which were issued at the same time and for home video and salons. It also paved the way for mass production of games such as tennis, auto racing, Star Wars and many others. There was a new market segment: in the late 70`s and early 80`s hundreds of millions of cartridges have been sold. It is a miracle of marketing and 200 million. Funds invested into an enterprise with revenue of 2 billion. Dollars.
Bushnell sells his dream
`Atari` expanded faster than that allowed her finances. Once confronted with an acute need for major capital infusions in order to continue to introduce innovative developments Bushnell. In 1976 `Atari` engaged in the production of video games, consumer electronics, had views on the issue of personal computers. Flexible mind Bushnell searched for the most appropriate source of additional financing, and ultimately Nolan decided not corporatized company and sell it.
Bushnell first choice fell on `Disney`, his favorite group. But they were not interested. Next was `Em Si Ay`, which also rejected the proposal. `Kommyunikeyshns` Warner at that time was quite a wealthy company to pursue an aggressive policy on the market. But they are not even on the list of potential buyers `Atari`.
Nolan sold `` Atari` Warner Kommyunikeyshns` in September 1976 for 28 million. Dollars. and to guarantee conditions of early jobs to him and leading experts. Part of the deal was a further investment of 100 million. Dol., To inventive mind Bushnell had the opportunity to do more. By the time `` Uorner` already acquired Med` and several other risk-oriented diversified companies, made from the same cloth as the `Atari`. Thus, `Uoren` not scared` Atari` reputation as a company, which reigns free spirit. Sale enriched Nolan 15 million. Dollars. The first game of `Pong` was created in less than four years ago. `Belli` not see prospects for innovative invention of video games, and Nolan did everything himself - has invested $ 250. and multiplied them in the sixty thousand times less than four years! These awards are waiting for innovators who dared to take risks.
The second innovation Nolan - family entertainment
In 1979, Nolan pressure `Uorner` resigned and was appointed chairman of the `Pizza Time Fiate`.
In 1977, Bushnell has funded `Pizza Taym` in the amount of 500,000 dollars. By `Uorner` as` Uorner` did not want to engage in self-realization yet another bizarre idea Nolan. The first prototype of this fantastic idea was designed by another `Atari` in 1977, but` Uorner` felt she had no future.
`Pizza Taym` grew faster than` Atari` and Nolan made this idea a lot more money than their time in `Atari`. `Pizza Time Fiate` were great restaurants that served pizza and where there was a whole arsenal of video games, different views with computer animation, computer games room, children`s playgrounds. Fur rat microarray and mascot chicken E. Cheese (Chuck E. Cheese). This costumed characters delivered a pizza to a birthday party and danced with the children. The idea undamped enjoyed success in previously untapped segment of the market - families with young children from three to fifteen years. Revenues accounted for 1.25 million. Dollars. with each institution annually at 25 per cent of tax deductions.
In the 70s there was no place where a mother, father and children could play, eat and have fun together. Traditional parks and zoos were seasonal and were not always designed for adult family members.
Besides, not every week the family had the opportunity to go there. It offers visitors a family atmosphere small places where you can eat and have fun, while spending only a small fraction of what would be worth a visit to the park. These stores are located within or close to the shopping centers of each city market in the United States.
The idea of ??`Pizza Taym` owes its origin to the extraordinary success in video halls. It all started in 1977 with a single store in Saint-Josie, and by 1983, these institutions were already 250. Revenues have grown from zero to 250 mln. Dollars. Nolan share in the share capital expressed as a sum of 48 million. Dollars in April 1981. He became a two-time winner and darling of Wall Street. However, this did not last long, as long as the inventive mind Nolan is not carried away by a new long-term project.
`Gains Pizza Time Fiate` become a means of realization of the aspirations of his creativity. He was infected with the disease most creative geniuses, who preferred to do rather than function. Nolan organized various structural units in the corporate structure of the `Pizza Taym`, under which created the game ( `Sent` that competed with` Atari`), cartoons (` Kadabraskop` compete with `Disney`) and worked out a new concept of individual bars ( `` Zapps` competed with T-GI Fraydiz`). Then he began to implement the idea of ??a miniature amusement park. All this has been the improvement of achievements` Pizza Taym` and financed from its funds.
It is striking that while the reorganization of the `Pizza Time Fiate`, he created a new business by establishing a wholly owned subsidiary `Katalist` (Catalyst). An attempt to create a vertically integrated conglomerate was too cumbersome for resource `Pizza Taym`. Division literally ate all the cash and capital revenues from the activities of `Pizza Taym`, and as a result the firm fell under the scope of Article 11 of the Code, was declared bankrupt and sold to larger competitors` Show Biz Pizza Dallas` - one of the first franchisees` Pizza Taym`.
Feature personal behavior
Holan Bushnell - is extroverted, intuitive, thinking, empathic type (ENME). According to Kershaw (1984):
Persons belonging to ENME type, willing to test their ingenuity in the world of people and things ... so figurative approach to social relations, psychology and art. They warily watching the manifestations of new processes and always sensitive to new opportunities.
Bushnell - typical extrovert who receives most of the energy from the outside world. He spends innovation and makes strategic decisions, infinitely trusting your intuition. But tactical decisions are rational and impersonal. Bushnell operates openly, spontaneously and in business and in personal life. Orderliness - not his path.
A very important personality trait Nolan Bushnell is that
Kershaw qualifies this behavior as a key characteristic ENME personality type:
ENME more than any other type of resist traditional modes of action. They are characterized to look for the best way, their attention is always directed at the development of new projects, new activities, new methods.
Kershaw also pointed out that the identity of this type possess the gift of persuasion. Nolan Referring anyone else, it corresponds to this characteristic, because in Silicon Valley, he was known as a real `` ocharovashkoy` and vendor-iskusitelem`. Bushnell corresponds to the image of `non-conformist who prefer to outsmart the system and win the game in whatever stalo`. Iconoclastic nature Bushnell evident in his attitude to the counters, charged for car parking. In 1982, in San Francisco, he parked his Rolls-Royce, said: "And do not think to pay over the counter, Jen This is a parking lot for the rich.". (Landrum, 1983). Another bushnelizm: "Let`s not allow the truth to block the path of this initiative, Jen" (Landrum, 1979).
Bushnell was an incorrigible optimist, often to the detriment of his well-being. He so believed in their new endeavors, I could risk all for the sake of realization of their dreams. An example of its positive myopia - undertaken in 1982, the production of domestic robots, associated with excessive risk and cost him 8 million dollars.. These were his own money. He passionately believed that the era of household robots. He urged reporters that soon robots will replace the pet dogs and their owners will bring the newspaper - and believed in it himself. When the question arose about the feasibility of home robots, he said: "The wage-workers - it`s expensive, but robots will not have to pay." In the mid-1980s, the project was mothballed, bringing a loss of 15 million. Dollars.
Bushnell was possessed by the player. He can bet on who will enter the next door. You could spend hours playing with their friends in, putting on 100 USD. on the game. He believed that business - it is a game, and should treat it as a game. He attached no importance to awards in the game and business, mainly for the Bushnell was well played.
"Atari" its name is also required to the competitive spirit and his obsession with games. It was taken from the ancient Japanese game Go` `means:" I attack you, "- tantamount to a declaration that the mat at chess. This demonstrates aggressive, tending to contest Bushnell nature and his desire to make the game the center of his world.
The tendency to pucky
Nolan Bushnell is a gifted player like Turner and the great majority of entrepreneurs. His home is a special playroom and, in addition, a variety of games in almost every room, as well as a movie theater, ice cream room, tennis court, water slide, golf croquet, volleyball court and a swimming pool. Such a set of toys for adults is necessary to meet the child`s need for its capricious in the fun and frivolity and to entertain his seven children.
`Katalist` (catalyst) - incubator where Bushnell` vynashival` new business ideas was formed in 1982. `Katalist` demonstrated its foresight and willingness to take risks better than any other of its businesses. In some ways they are even superior to the desire of Ted Turner to the risk and speculation. The first of his ideas he implemented in the company `Endrobot`. It is engaged in the development and production of domestic robots. Within three years, 15 million was invested in this enterprise. Dollars. The second company - `Timbertech> - create computers for teaching young children. Next Bushnell idea came during his participation in the regatta `Transpac Reys` - from Los Angeles to Hawaii. He, with the participation of several members of the team developed a satellite navigation system for cars and commercial vehicles. Again Nolan organized another company called `Etak`, is engaged in refining and release to the market of the offspring of the space age.
Nolan - the eternal child - created the company `Akslon` and dedicated its activities for the production of high-tech business toy talking animals. Then he formed a company to manufacture machines to retailers who, he supposed, were to be a separate species trading business, called Bi-Video. By creating a company `Magnum-Mikroveyv`, he felt himself in the business, commercial microwave communications. Then Nolan and his wife Nancy opened restaurant `The Lion and Kompas` and the club` Bar and Grill Zappa`. In the mid-80s in full force developed the concept of the color image, which prompted an ingenious brain Nolan to create a new color computer called `Ai-Er-Ou`. This computer could scan the color of the skin and the hair and give the client a personalized preferred colors. Company `Sent` Bushnell created as a manufacturer of games and competitor` Atari` and other companies of the industry.
Bushnell was chairman and a major investor in the majority of these firms, but not very good at this task. Om attracted external capital and repeatedly put on `kon` his fortune. Most of these companies have not been able to recoup the investment. Its ability to generate new ideas and entirely given to them was like a passion of Bill Lear, and disregard for the threat of defeat is very similar to the tactics of Ted Turner.
At forty Bushnell owned by the state, 80 million. Dollars. and by forty-five I lost most of it in a variety of risky enterprises. He continued to play this game with the same passion as the geniuses of business, as Lear, Deloran and Trump. Nolan made a fortune on the games and lost it at the games. Games have become its essence, as well as the essence of Trump became `sdelka`. These great players have left a trace because of the firm conviction that business - the game, and they played it as if he had the money monopoly.
Creative geniuses are betting based on his intuitive faith and win big - but if you make mistakes, then lose big. So it was in the `70s, when Nolan greatly underestimated the potential for PC market. Steve Jobs during those tumultuous days working directly or indirectly on Nolan. Thus, Bushnell was one of the first to Jobs in 1975 presented, along with Wozniak developed the PC version of Apple `I`. Nolan, the man, who had a brilliant intuition, Jobs said that he sees no prospects for the PC market. This significant fact, often brilliant visionaries may be short-sighted in relation to someone else`s idea.
Nolan Bushnell - cocksure optimist with high self-esteem. He overcame adversity and did not let the ups and downs undermine its purpose. The game is in the business - it was a game of his mind, and the game brought him joy. He played them cheerfully, with a positive emotional mood. The defense is not part of his tactics. He only played in the attack.
Nolan - an extrovert with a cheerful disposition, and inventive mind, unable to dwell for long on one subject. His philosophy is the pursuit of new opportunities, in some measure allows a negative analogy between Nolan and Vincent Paley. Partly for his tireless and cheerful spirit concealed hyperactive libido. As an example, can cause an incident that occurred in 1976 in New York City. At this point, Bushnell just concluded a contract for the sale and received a deposit in the form of a check for 1 million. Dollars. against future 15 million. dollars. By their constant habit, he spent most of the night in the entertainment business in New York, with his eye on one of yuristok. During these nocturnal adventures, he lost a check for a million Dolar. His new employer probably would have been shocked if the Chairman of the Board of the new acquisition would call with a request to suspend the operation of the check of one million dollars. But Nolan check was just a little bit of loss, which, he believed, you have to pay to play `igru` well. Life always seemed self-assured cornucopia father of video games.
At the dawn of video games traditionalists have tried to undermine their reputation, arguing that they harm the health and wellbeing of children. Local and federal authorities began to prohibit them under various pretexts. `Hunting vedm` passing through the history of mankind, from Galileo to Einstein, in the late `70s-early` 80s kosnulas