Date of Birth: 06/02/1861
Place of birth: Tiraspol
Inventor of the first effective mask
The 10-year-old Nikolai Zelinsky entered the Tiraspol district school on the 2-year courses to prepare for entering school. Prematurely ending their 11-year-old Nicholas entered the Odessa Rishelevsky classical gymnasium, in the 2nd class. After high school in 1880, Nikolai Dmitreevich enters the Novorossiysk University in the natural sciences department of physics and mathematics. In 1884 he graduated from the Novorossiysk University (Odessa) in 1888 g.vyderzhal master`s examination, there defended his master`s (1889) and doctorate (1891) thesis. In 1893-1953 professor at Moscow University, except for the period 1911-1917, when he left the university with a group of scientists in protest against the reactionary policies of the tsarist Minister of Education Kasso (in those years in St. Petersburg Zelinsky was the director of the Central Laboratory of the Ministry of Finance and chair of the Polytechnical Institute). In 1935 actively participated in the organization of the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the USSR, which then led a number of laboratories; this institution from 1953 bears his name. Nikolai Zelinsky is buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.
The scientific activity
Zelinsky`s scientific activity is very versatile: widely known for his work on the chemistry of thiophene, stereochemistry of organic dibasic acids. In the summer of 1891 he participated in the expedition Zelinsky poobsledovaniyu waters of the Black Sea and the Odessa estuaries on the gunboat "Zaporozhets", where for the first time proved that the water contained in the hydrogen sulfide - bacterial origin. Between living and working in Odessa Nikolay he wrote 40 scientific papers. It is also devoted to his work and electrical conductivity in the non-aqueous solutions, by amino acid chemistry, but his main works related to hydrocarbon chemistry and organic catalysis. In 1895-1907 for the first time synthesized a series of cyclopentane and cyclohexane hydrocarbons serve as a reference for the study of the chemical composition of oil fractions. Already in 1911 he implemented smooth dehydrogenation of cyclohexane and its homologues in aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of palladium and platinum catalysts; This reaction is widely used to determine the content of hydrocarbons in the gasoline cyclohexane and petroleum fractions, kerosene (1920-30), as well as an industrial method for producing aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum. These studies Zelinsky underlie modern processes of catalytic reforming of oil fractions. Further studies in this area have led Zelinsky and his disciples to the discovery (1934) cyclopentane hydrogenolysis reaction of hydrocarbons with their transformation into alkanes in the presence of platinized charcoal, and excess hydrogen.
In 1915 Zelinsky successfully oxide catalysts used in petroleum cracking, resulting in lower process temperature and to increase the yield of aromatic hydrocarbons. In 1918-19 Zelinsky developed a method for the production of gasoline by cracking diesel oil and crude oil in the presence of chloride and aluminum bromide; implementation of this method on an industrial scale has played an important role in the Soviet state gasoline. Zelinsky improved catalytic reaction of acetylene to benzene seals offering used as activated carbon catalyst. In 1930-ies. thoroughly researched them more open in 1911 disproportionation reaction of cyclohexene (m. n. irreversible catalysis), in which both formed cyclohexane and benzene. Zelinsky and his students also studied the dehydrogenation of paraffins and olefins in the presence of oxide catalysts.
As a supporter of the theory of organic origin of oil, Zelinsky conducted several studies to link its genesis with sapropel, oil shale, and others. Natural and synthetic organic substances.
Zelinsky and his students proved intermediate formation methylene radicals in many heterogeneous catalytic reactions: the decay of cyclohexane, in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from oxides of carbon and hydrogen on cobalt catalyst in open them reactions gidrokondensatsii olefin oxide, carbon and gidropolimerizatsii olefins in the presence of small amounts of oxides of carbon .
A special place is occupied by the Zelinsky adsorption and to build a coal gas mask (1915), adopted by the arms during the 1 st World War 1914-18 in the Russian and Allied armies.
Zelinsky created a large school of researchers who have made fundamental contributions in various fields of chemistry. Among his pupils: academician of the USSR AA Balandin, LF Vereshchagin, BA Kazan, KA Kocheshkov, SS Nametkin, Nesmeyanov; Corresponding Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences NA Izgaryshev, KP Lavrovskii, G. Mammadaliyev, Boris Mikhailov, AV Rakovsky, VV Chelintsev NI Shuikin; Professor LA Chugai, NA Shilov and others.
Zielinski - one of the organizers of the All-Union Chemical Society. Mendeleev and since 1941 its honorary member; 1921 Honorary member of the Moscow Society of Naturalists, 1935 - its president. Prize. Lenin (1934); Stalin Prize (1942, 1946, 1948). He was awarded four Orders of Lenin, two other orders and medals.
Heritage in Moldova
In Tiraspol, the house in which the childhood home of Zelinsky, operates the memorial house-museum of academician, and the building of school