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Nikolay Vereshagin

Picture of Nikolay Vereshagin

Date of Birth: 10/13/1839

Age: 67

Citizenship: Russia

Background

Born on 13 October (25 October) 1839 in the village of Pertovke Cherepovets district Novgorod province in the family of the landowner. At the age of 10 years it was defined in the Alexander Cadet Corps, and a year later transferred to the Petrovsky Marine Cadet Corps.

As a naval officer, he graduated in 1864, the natural history department of Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St. Petersburg University. For political beliefs he was populist and decided to devote himself to improving the economic situation of farmers by rational organization of dairy cattle and dairy farms in business.

Leaving military service in 1865, NV Vereshchagin visited Switzerland, Germany, England, France, Holland, Denmark and Sweden to examine the dairy case. Here he first saw the artel cheese factory, where farmers handed over milk and then divided between the proceeds received from the sale of cheese and butter.

Upon his return to Russia NV Vereshchagin initiated the establishment of peasant cooperatives for processing milk into butter and cheese. March 19, 1866, he opened the first cheese factory in the artel Otrokovichah Tver province. By 1870 in the Tver province operated for 11 artisanal cheesemaking created NV Vereshchagin. Artisanal cheese-making rather quickly spread to other places. For several years, opened dozens of dairies in the Tver, Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Vologda and other provinces.

Such active development of the dairy business to quickly identify a lack of qualified personnel, and in June 1871 in a. Edimonovo Korchevsky County Tver province with the direct participation of Nikolai first dairy farm school in Russia was opened. Under his leadership, the school for 30 years of existence, has trained more than 1,000 people, masters of Butter and Cheese.

Vereaschagin the first time in Russia organized a workshop for the manufacture of dairy equipment and utensils made of special iron, which he worked out the order of the Ural metallurgical factories.

In 1890, at a meeting of the Moscow Society of Agriculture, NV Vereshchagin put forward the idea of ??creating special institutions of higher education in Russia for training highly qualified personnel for all branches of agriculture. This idea when his life was not implemented. It is only in 1911 Av. A. Kalantar - pupil NV Vereshchagin - made opening milk-economic institute near Vologda in the village. Dairy.

Since 1866, NV Vereshchagin was a member of the Imperial Moscow Society of Agriculture. In 1874 he was elected Chairman of the Committee of the ranching community. For some good work in organizing the dairy farmers in the artisanal basis, the northern provinces of Russia in 1869, he was awarded the gold medal of the Moscow Society of Agriculture, and later was elected an honorary member of the society.

Much attention is paid to improving the scientist domestic breeds of dairy cattle. In 1883, when the school Edimonovskoy NV Vereshchagin with Av.A. Kalantarov organized the first in Russia (second - in Europe), a laboratory for the study of the composition of the milk, which initiated extensive research of local cattle breeds. He proved that with proper care and feeding of domestic animals capable of producing extremely high milk production.

Vereshchagin systematically organized in the northern provinces of Russia exhibition of dairy farming. Higher reward at these exhibitions was Vereshchaginskaya award issued for the achievement of a high milk production of domestic livestock.

NV Vereshchagin first in the world to apply the cream to boil and create on their basis of a completely new, unknown to him abroad method of cooking butter, having a pronounced taste of pasteurization ( "Nut"). Due to a miscommunication Vologda butter called in Paris for many years. Interestingly, the Swedes, who learned about this oil in 1879 at the St. Petersburg exhibition, began to call him St. Petersburg. In the 30 years this oil was renamed in Vologda.

Before NV Vereshchagin butter is not exported. Russia was selling ghee to Turkey and Egypt. However, there was a threat of closing of foreign markets for Russian oil, which passed in connection with the export of oil Paris. Through the efforts of NV Vereshchagin Russian exports of butter in 1906 was reduced to 3 million. Pounds in the amount of 44 mln. Rub.

H. Vereshchagin wrote about 60 scientific and popular scientific works and articles on agriculture. Many of his works have not lost their importance in our days.

March 13, 1907, NV Vereshchagin died in poverty, leaving the family`s livelihood, as laid his estate.