Date of Birth: 12/18/1851
Kruszewski, VYACHESLAVOVICH Nikolay (Nikolai Habdank) (1851-1887), a Russian linguist. Pole by birth, wrote in Russian. Born 6 (18) December 1851 in Lutsk, Ukraine. In 1875 he graduated from the Warsaw University, where he received a good philosophy, but weak language training. Not being able to get a job in Poland, where the active Russification policy was pursued after the suppression of the 1863 uprising, became a teacher of high school in a remote town of Troitsk (now - Chelyabinsk region, on the border with Kazakhstan), in 1878 he moved to Kazan. I managed to make up for a lack of linguistic training in self-education and advice at I.A.Boduena de Courtenay, with whom he worked in close cooperation to the departure of the last of Kazan in 1883. From 1880 he taught at the University of Kazan, s1885 - university professor. Since 1884 at Kruszewski began to show signs of mental illness, because of which he in 1886, just months after the approval in the professorship, was forced to resign. He died in a psychiatric hospital in Kazan, October 31 (12 November) 1887.
Despite the fact that the active scientific activity Kruszewski lasted only a few years, he has made significant contributions to linguistics, largely anticipating such ideas structuralist revolution of the early 20th c., As the shift from the historic to the synchronous language learning, non-recognition of the comparative method is the main method the science of language, language interpretation as a system of signs, and others. In the lecture subject, division and method of the science of language (1880) Kruszewski declared refusal to limit problems of linguistics studying the history of languages, called to engage in modern languages. In the master`s thesis the question of the mode. Research in the Old Slavonic vocalism (1881; guna - is a Sanskrit term for a middle stage of the vowel alternation) for the first time in the world of science has given the classification of interlaces to distinguish phonetically phonetically caused by not anticipating conditioned and the idea of ??phonology. According I.A.Boduena de Courtenay, Kruszewski is proposed to use the term "phoneme" at a value close to the modern.
The main work of Kruszewski - doctoral thesis Science Essay on language (1883). The author has defined linguistics as a science, to identify common laws that govern the phenomena of language. If his contemporaries either denied the existence of the language laws, or to reduce them to the laws of linguistic change, then Kruszewski along with historical laws singled out "static laws" defined the laws of the human psyche. His formulation of the basic law of the development of language as a "world law compliance words the world of thoughts" in harmony with the ideas of active grammar L.V.Scherby and modern approaches to the description of language "from meaning to form." Posthumously, in 1993 in Warsaw, it was published another major work Kruszewski - Essays in linguistics. Antropofonika.
Ideas Kruszewski, partly reflected in not reprinted more than one hundred years, and in part come down to us through I.A.Boduenu de Courtenay, have not received in the 19th century. wide popularity, but later influenced the development of concepts R.Yakobsona, E.Kurilovicha and others.