Nikolay Koksharov

Picture of Nikolay Koksharov

Citizenship: Russia


Nikolai Koksha`rov (1818-1892) - an outstanding Russian scientist in the field of mineralogy and crystallography, Professor of the Mining Institute, director of the Mineralogical Society, academician of the Imperial Academy of Sciences.

First Steps NI Koksharov in science were purely "geological" character. In the year of the end of the St. Petersburg Mining Institute (1840), he became an active member of a geological expedition, which was led by an outstanding scientist and geologist R. Murchison. With this expedition a young researcher (he was 22 years old) for a few years has gone from Petersburg to the Urals. He conducted geological investigations in many northern provinces (St. Petersburg, Vologda, Tver, Perm). Under the geological map of the studied regions of Russia, published in 1845, in addition to the head R.Murchisona can be found and the name of NI Koksharov ( "... on-site observations attended Lieutenant Koksharov").

NI Koksharov made a significant contribution to the broad spectrum of geological research. He was engaged in a systematic study of stratigraphic sections, rocks, fossil organic remains, the relationship of magmatic massifs and sedimentary strata, etc.

After the transition to teaching at the Mining Institute (1847) NI Koksharov focused all their attention on the study of minerals. They had made a huge work on the accurate measurement of crystals of many minerals found in Russia. As a result of his work earlier purely verbal description of the minerals they were replaced by precise characteristics, and above all with morphological reduction of corresponding crystallographic data, with precise images of the crystals.

All this is reflected in his fundamental work "Materials for the mineralogy of Russia." Publication of eleven volumes of this work has made a very valuable contribution to the knowledge of minerals.

N.I.Koksharovym performed qualified and painstaking measurement of more than 400 minerals. Some minerals (including brookite, orthite, wollastonite, yellow cancrinite, euclase et al.), It is first found in Russia. They were discovered some minerals, particularly clinochlore.

For nearly three decades (from 1865 to 1892), Academician Nikolai Ivanovich Koksharov served as director of the Mineralogical Society, and made a great contribution to its development. His long vigorous activity was reflected in many aspects of society. The merit of the method is primarily limited to the fact that the Company has shown a valuable initiative for the systematic geologicheskogoissledovaniya Russia, whose ultimate goal was to make a complete geological map, the value of which can not be overestimated. Simultaneously with the election in 1866 ordinary academician NI Koksharov was appointed as director of the Mineralogical Museum.

Vernadsky, evaluating scientific work of NI Koksharov, wrote: "We can say that only because Koksharov we have accurate knowledge of the geometric shape of the main groups of minerals, and only after his works were possible correct compilation and comparison of the phenomena of cognition which form the main and decisive. for the entire group of halogen-phosphorus-acidic compounds - apatite and TP, for a group of augite and hornblende, for natural sulfuric acid salts, and so on. and so on. the most accurate knowledge, we have achieved, Koksharova are numbers. " And further: "His results, he has managed to achieve strict and intelligent choice of material for research through accurate research samples crystals Koksharov laid a solid foundation for all, for all generalizations in this area.".

Later VI Vernadsky also wrote that x hile "Koksharov worked all his life with the help of old appliances, which dominated in science in the first half of XIX century., But using them it reached amazing results that put him in the measurement of the most subtle and improved data, as we have in mineralogy. it took 22 years after the death of Koksharova and more than 60 years after some of it has received the data, but the numbers are just as durable as they were during his lifetime, and not surpassed by new research. Koksharov reached this result not only of extraordinary experience in working with malosovershennymi devices, but also suitable for measuring the well-formed crystals, which he chose often of the many hundreds of indivisible this mineral. during his long life, he has measured and calculated the representatives of the main groups of the mineral kingdom, and the number of Koksharova still form the basis of our knowledge of the natural crystals, however, a collection of his articles in that direction, which he published (1853-1892 gg.) separately in the form of "Materials for Russian Mineralogy" (11 volumes.; Russian edition, unfortunately, was interrupted at the 6th volume, 1856-1878 gg.) it is an indispensable tool is still working with Russian minerals. "

Crystallographic constants calculated Koksharov underlie morphological characteristics of many minerals. "Memories" NI Koksharov were published in 1890. in "Russian Antiquities" (