Nikolay Druzhinin

Picture of Nikolay Druzhinin

Date of Birth: 01/13/1886

Age: 100

Place of birth: Kursk

Citizenship: Russia


He graduated from the Fifth Moscow Gymnasium (1904), the economic department of the Faculty of Law (1911, diploma work: "Protection of female and child labor in the manufacturing industry of Russia") and the historical-philological faculty (1918, diploma work: "Russian peasant community in the light of historiography") Moscow University. Student RY Wigner and MM Theology.

While studying at the university participated in the revolutionary movement, in 1905 he was arrested, she spent 2.5 months in prison, was expelled from the university (where initially he studied the historical-philological faculty) and sent to Saratov. In 1906, newly admitted to the university`s law faculty. In 1916 he was drafted into the army, he graduated from a crash course in military school and was promoted to ensign. After the February Revolution of 1917 was the chairman of the regimental committee, in August 1917 led military forces opponents speech General LG Kornilov. In 1918 and 1919 twice briefly arrested by the Bolshevik authorities. During the Civil War he was drafted into the Red Army, worked in military-educational institutions.

From 1920 he taught at the Faculty of Humanities of Kostroma State University, worked in the Moscow gubpolitprosvete. In 1924-1934 was a member of the Museum of the Revolution (1926 - it Scientific Secretary), engaged in the problems of museology, methodology and methods of exposure and excursion work.

The 1920s was a fellow of the second category (analogue graduate student), Institute of History of the Russian association of research institutes in the social sciences (RANION), where he wrote his first monograph "," Journal of the landowners. " 1858-1860 "came to the conclusion that this publication is an important source on the history of serf economy the last few years of its existence. This work has caused sharp criticism from the head of the school of Soviet Marxist historians Pokrovskii, who in the main party newspaper "Pravda" in 1929 accused the researcher in apology for "serf of the magazine." In a response letter Druzhinin vehemently denied the accusations, saying that

the author has the right to demand from their opponents that they comply with the basic conditions of all criticism: that they are properly transferred his thoughts and not attributed to him such conclusions that are completely alien to his scientific and political views.

In the context of the Intercession of dominance in the former Soviet historical science it refused to publish the letter. It was published only 50 years later. In 1930 Druzhinin was arrested, then released.

In 1920-1930, he studied the history of the Decembrist movement in Russia. The author of the monograph "Decembrist Nikita Ants" (1933), based on the scientific work (analogue of Ph.D. thesis), protected Druzhinin in 1929. This study is based on a careful study of the writings and correspondence of ants on a comparison of its constitutional project with his contemporary acts of foreign states. There was also the author of articles on Pestel, SP Trubetskoy, ZG Chernyshev, ID Iakushkin, the program of the Northern Society.

In 1929-1948 he taught at the University of Moscow, in 1946-1948 - at the Academy of Social Sciences under the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). Since 1946 - a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, since 1953 - Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Author problem-methodological articles "On the periodization of the history of capitalism in Russia" ( "Questions of History", 1949, number 11, 1951, number 1), "The conflict between the productive forces and feudal relations on the eve of the 1861 reform" (ibid, 1954 , number 7), which acted as a supporter of the Marxist trend in historical science. The author repeatedly republished autobiography "Memories and thoughts of the historian" (1967).

In the capital the "state peasants ireforma PD Kiseleva" (her first volume was published in 1946 and the following year was awarded the Stalin Prize of the second volume was published in 1958) carefully analyzed the history of the state peasants (this is the first fundamental study devoted to this category Agriculture Russia`s population). Identify links Kiselev reforms with the peasant reform of 1861 (thought reform Kiseleva "dress rehearsal" liberation of the peasants). The first volume is devoted to study the economic and political reforms premises, the second - the implementation of reform and the foundations of its characteristic effects.

In 1958 he began a study of post-reform villages and took place in its processes, which culminated in the monograph