Date of Birth: 02/19/1473
Nicolaus Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473 in the Polish city of Torun in the family of a merchant who came from Germany. He was the fourth child in the family. Primary education he received, most likely at the school at the Church of St. Jana. After the death during the plague of Nicolaus Copernicus, the father cares nephew took over Lukasz Vachenrode, mother`s brother.
In the second half of October 1491 Nicholas Copernicus with his brother Andrzej arrived in Krakow and enrolled in a local university Faculty of Arts.
In 1496, Nicholas and his brother Andrzej was in Bologna, then part of the Papal States and is famous for its university. Nikolai enrolled in the Faculty of Law, with offices of civil and canonical, ie. E. The church, right. March 9, 1497, together with the astronomer Domenico Maria Novara Nicholas held its first scientific observation.
In 1498 Nicolaus Copernicus was approved by correspondence in the rank of canon Fromborkskogo the chapter.
Then Nicholas briefly returned to Poland, but just a year later again sent to Italy, where he studied medicine at the Paduan, `University and received a doctorate in theology at the University of Ferrara. At home Copernicus returned at the end of 1503 comprehensively educated man. He settled first in the city of Lidzbark, and then he was appointed canon in Frombork - the fishing village at the mouth of the Vistula.
In Frombork Copernicus turned his astronomical observations, despite the inconvenience of frequent fogs Vislyanskogo Bay.
The most famous instrument, which was used by Copernicus, was trikvetrum, parallax tool. The second device is used by Copernicus to determine the angle of the ecliptic, "horoscope", a sundial, a kind of quadrant.
In "Little comments", written about 1516, Copernicus gave a preliminary statement of its doctrine, or rather their hypotheses.
At the height of the war with the Crusaders in nachalenoyabrya 1520, Copernicus elected administrator of the chapter estates in Olsztyn and Pieniezno. Taking command of the garrison of the few Olsztyn, Copernicus took steps to strengthen the defense of the castle-fortress and managed to defend Olsztyn. Shortly after the armistice in April 1521 appointed Commissioner of Warmia, Copernicus, and in autumn 1523 - Chancellor of the chapter. .
By the early thirties, work on the creation of a new theory and its design in his work "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" has been basically completed. By that time, almost half a millennium, world order system existed, proposed Ancient Greek-sky scholar Claudius Ptolemy. It was the fact that the Earth rests motionless in the center of the universe, and the sun and the other planets revolve around it. The provisions of the Ptolemaic theory were considered inviolable, because in good agreement with the teachings of the Catholic Church.
By observing the movement of celestial bodies, Copernicus concluded that the theory of Ptolemy wrong. After thirty years of hard work, many observations and complex mathematical calculations, he proved that the Earth - this is just one of the planets, and all the planets revolve around the sun.
Copernicus believed that man perceives the movement of celestial bodies as well as the movement of various objects in the world, when he is in motion. Observer on the Earth, it seems that the Earth is stationary and the sun moves around it. In fact, this is the Earth moves around the sun, and during the year makes a complete revolution in its orbit.
Copernicus was dying, when his friends brought him the first copy of "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres," printed in one of Nuremberg printers.
Copernicus died on May 24, 1543.
For some time his work was distributed freely among scientists. Only then, when Copernicus came followers of his teachings were declared heresy, and the book included in the "Index" of forbidden books.