Nikolay Bobrikov

Picture of Nikolay Bobrikov

Date of Birth: 01/15/1839

Age: 65

Place of birth: Strelna

Citizenship: Finland


Born January 15, 1839 in Strelna; his parents: a member of the military-medical committee, a senior resident of the St. Petersburg military-land Hospital Ivan Bobrikov (1798-1883) and Alexander Egorovna nee Zealand (1817-1896). Brothers and sisters: Love (1834-after 1888); jurist, state councilor Ivan (1835-1880); Hope (1837-after 1917); General of Infantry, a member of the Military Committee of scientist, military writer George (1840-1924); Privy Councillor Alexander (1846-after 1917).

He was educated in the 1 st Cadet Corps, from which the June 30, 1858 released a lieutenant in the 1st Grenadier infantry battalion. November 1, 1860 was assigned to the Life Guards Lancer Regiment of His Majesty to study the rules of cavalry service, April 15, 1861 has been enlisted in this regiment cornet and 21 April of the same year promoted to lieutenant of the Life Guards.

August 25 arrived in Nicholas General Staff Academy, April 17, 1863 promoted to staff-captains, and November 9, 1864 released from the Academy of the General Directorate of the General Staff. In 1865, it sent to monitor the transport of the Volga and the Caspian Sea young soldiers, assigned from the reserve battalions of the Kazan and Moscow military districts to supplement the Caucasus Military District regiments. For the successful execution of this task Bobrikov October 28, 1865 was promoted to captain and appointed the case of senior adjutant of the Kazan Military District. June 26, 1868 was appointed Chief of Staff of the 22nd Infantry Division, April 20, 1869 promoted to colonel.

October 16, 1876, Colonel Bobrikov was appointed commander in chief of the Danube consist army Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich the Elder, in the next year - performing business assistant chief of staff of the Guards Corps, in which the position and spent years 1877-1878 campaign. against the Turks.

January 1, 1878 Bobrikov was promoted to major general (with seniority from 30 August of the same year), and on July 14, enlisted in the retinue of His Majesty. February 26, 1884 appointed Chief of Staff of troops the Guard and St. Petersburg Military District, to which position he remained until 1897 August 30, 1884 promoted to lieutenant general.

Manufactured December 6, 1897 a general of infantry, Bobrikov was appointed a member of the Military Council, and in the same year, on August 17 granted to the Adjutant General and is intended for the post of Finland Governor-General and Commander of the Military District of Finland. May 6, 1900 Bobrikov was appointed member of the Council of State, leaving in his office.

In the appointment of the Governor-General Bobrikov Nicholas II gave a note that outlined a program of activities in Finland. Its main points: the union of the army, the abolition or limitation of value, State Secretariat, the legalization of a special order of cases, the general of the Empire and the Grand Duchy, the introduction of the Russian language in the Senate, in educational institutions and administration, facilitate Russian entry into service in Finland, the establishment of supervision University textbooks and revision of all Finnish schools, the abolition of the special customs and monetary system, the foundation of Russian government newspaper, the simplification of the ceremonial opening of the Sejm and the revision of the provisions of the governor-general of the Grand Duchy of Finland, published in 1812

This Bobrikov program conducted with great consistency, extremely harsh and total disregard for the constitution existed in Finland. February 3, 1899 held a manifesto on the order of publication of general state laws, in 1901, abolished the independent Finnish army and the Finns began to call on a common basis in the Russian army. The paperwork Senate introduced the Russian language, founded "The Finnish newspaper `schools placed under the vigilant control," disloyal "the teacher corrected and so on. Bobrikov severely persecuted the newspaper, many eliminated; in 1902, he asked for special powers and on the basis of them sent abroad in an administrative order (so far in Finland did not exist), many public figures; but all this did not help. Bobrikov tried some measures in favor of the landless torppari and help starving to bind the people of the lower classes; but no one believed in its democracy, and these measures were unsuccessful.

June 4, 1904 in the building of the Finnish Senate Eugene Schauman, the son of Finnish senator, a shot from a revolver mortally wounded Bobrikov, who passed away on the night of 5 June; he shot himself after the assassination Schauman. Attempt Schaumann attributed to the decision of the Swedish party, not mirivsheysya with Russian national policy Bobrikov.

Bobrikov was married twice. 1st wife - Olga nee Leontiev (1848-1895); 2nd wife (since 26 January 1897) - Elizabeth I. nee Baroness Stael von Holstein (1860-after 1917), daughter of General of Cavalry Ivan Karlovich steel. Children from 1st marriage: Olga (1869-1933), a graduate of the Catherine Institute for Noble Maidens in Petersburg, married twice, the second husband is the captain of the Life Guards Battalion sapper Emmanuel F. Shvanebah, from this marriage only son Boris, Maria (1873-1951), maid of honor, twice married, 1st husband cavalry general MA Andreev, 2nd husband - Major General Baron Tornau AG), Love (1880-1939, married to the military agent in Turkey, Lieutenant General and the . A. Holmsenom), Nicholas (1882-1956, colonel during the Civil war, fought in the ranks of the Volunteer army). From 2nd marriage Bobrikov had one daughter - Elizabeth (1897-1945).

In a culture

The famous Soviet writer Lev Uspensky in his "Notes of the old St. Petersburg man" told how in the days of carnival in the central streets of the capital, entertaining the kids, traveled elegant Finnish sleigh. The driver-Finn, which is usually called "Wake" (from the Finnish Veikko - "Brother, brother, zemlyachok"), shouted at his shaggy horse, "NGOs poprikkov raklyatty!"

Finnish coachman urged on the horse is not in the native tongue for both of them, but "in Russian." This "poprikkov raklyatty" (Bobrikov damn) consisted of attraction for the capital of the public, who knew that Wake scolds his chuhonskuyu horse named governor-general of Finland, who had a reputation as fierce localization and reactionary.

Bobrikov murder occurred on the same day, which is described in James Joyce`s novel "Ulysses