Born in the village of Cooter Birsk County Ufa Province (Bashkiria) in a peasant family.
In 1919 he joined the Komsomol.
Since 1921 member of the CPSU (b).
In 1925 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of National Economy. Plekhanov.
In 1919-1922 years in the YCL and trade union activities in the Bashkir ASSR, the executive secretary of the district committee and Koleginskogo Birsk the district Komsomol committee.
Since 1925 on the economic and co-operative work in Western Siberia: the chairman of the county unions of agricultural cooperatives, Head Traktorotsentra, deputy chairman of the Siberian kolhozsoyuza. He took an active part in the collectivization and related repression in Western Siberia.
Since 1939 Secretary of the Novosibirsk regional party committee on the food industry, then the first deputy chairman, chairman of the Novosibirsk Regional potrebsoyuza.
In 1941-1943 the first deputy chairman of the Novosibirsk regional executive committee.
Since 1943, Chairman of the Altai Krai Executive Committee, first secretary of the regional committee of the party. He spearheaded the development of virgin and fallow lands in the province.
Since 1946 deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. He took part in the convocations of 2 to 5.
In 1952-1961 he was a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU. After the death of Stalin`s career Belyaeva sharply went up the hill: From 12 iyulya1955 on November 12, 1958 held the post of Secretary of the CPSU, at the same time since 1956 Deputy Chairman of the Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU for the RSFSR, June 29, 1957 to May 4, 1960 - member of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee.
In the years 1957-1960 the first secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.
In 1960, the first secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee of the CPSU.
Since 1960, he retired.
Died October 28, 1966. He was buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.