Date of Birth: 05/13/1753
Place of birth: Nole
The younger son of a notary. Educated in the school of military engineers in Mezieres. Service began 01.01.1771 2nd lieutenant engineer troops. Almost all the service held in different garrisons. 14.12.1783 promoted to captain. In 1788 for speaking out against the doctrine existed in fortifications was briefly arrested. 8/31/1791 elected member of the Legislative Assembly of the Pas-de-Calais, a member of the Military Committee (since 26.10.1791), the diplomatic and public education (from 28 October.). Most of the time devoted to military affairs. In September. In 1792 elected a member of the Convention. He was appointed one of the commissioners 6 defense organization in the Eastern Pyrenees, led the mass arrests royalist officers. Repeatedly he komandirovyvalsya Convent in various armies. 26/09/1792 voted for the death penalty of King Louis XVI. In January. 1793 made a member of the Committee of the overall defense, actively campaigned for joining the French border areas of neighboring states. In March 1793 it sent to the Commissioner in the Northern Army. During the Jacobin dictatorship and recalled to Paris 14.08.1793 entered into the Public Safety Committee. In his hands, focused management of all personnel matters of the army and the movement of troops. Formed 14 armies and organized the defense of the republic. In fact, in 1793-95 alone he led the French. army. He received the nickname of the government propaganda victory Organizer, in the report for 17 months counted "27 big wins, 120 less significant. In the enemy killed 80 thousand. Pers., Captured 81 thousand. Recovered 106 fortresses and cities, of which 6 after the siege. Vzyato260 forts and redoubts, 3,800 guns, 70 thousand. Ryazhey 90 banners ... ". 03.05.1795 resigned from the Committee. 11/05/1795 Sieyes elected to replace a member of the Directory, which in his hands once again moved all military affairs. Together with N. Bonaparte drew up a plan of the Italian campaign. On April 30th. on July 29, 1796 and from June to August. 1797 was president of the Directory. 7/24/1796 elected member of the Institute. After the coup of 18 Fructidor (04/09/1797), when K and Barthelemy were accused of royalism, he fled to Geneva. Later he moved to Bavaria. After coming to power of Napoleon K. I was given permission to return to France. 24/12/1799 arrived in Paris. Following the appointment of a gene. Berthier commander of the reserve army 04/02/1800 took from him the military control by the Ministry. 10/08/1800 in protest against Napoleon`s plans podalv resignation, which was immediately accepted. From 27.03.1802 on 19.08.1807 member Tribunate. Sharply opposed the establishment of the Order of the Legion of Honor, the introduction of life consulate and the empire. At the beginning of 1814 when the threat of the Allied invasion of France to the territory offered his services to Napoleon and January 25. He was appointed governor of Antwerp. He supervised the defense of the city and 3 May left post. During the "Hundred Days" took the side of Napoleon 20.3.1815 was promoted to Minister of the Interior. 06.02.1815 received a peerage of France.
After the second abdication of Napoleon, was elected a member of the Provisional Government, he attempted to prevent the Allies entered Paris. 24.7 Decree 1815 expelled from France. Recent godyzhil in Magdeburg. His grandson Marie Francois in 1887 became president of France.