Nikifor Begichev

Picture of Nikifor Begichev

Date of Birth: 11/19/1874

Age: 52

Citizenship: Russia

geographical discoveries NA Begichev in Taimyr

Since 1906 he lived in the lower reaches of the Yenisei River. He traveled to Taimyr Peninsula and gathered information about its nature. In 1908 he opened in Khatanga Gulf (Laptev Sea) are two of the island that now bears his name (Big and Small Begichev Begichev). In 1922 he participated in the search of members of the expedition R. Amundsen`s ship left on the Taimyr Peninsula.

He died during the winter in the estuary. Metacarpal. In the village he built Dixon (1964) monument.

The former boatswain famous yacht Russian polar expedition of the Academy of Sciences NA Begichev from 1906, settled on the Taimyr Peninsula, during its fishing and exploratory trips to unknown places in 1908 - 1921 rr. I discovered several islands and PEX.

In the literature of discovery and routes in Taimyr Begichev highlights not exactly (Bolotnikov, 1954; Pinhenson, 1962). This is due to the uncritical use of modern authors names terrain Begichev recorded in journals, without trying to match them with the geographic names of modern cards. Do not take into account that when kartografirova ~ SRI territory of Taimyr in the Soviet time, many old geographical names have been removed from the card or transferred to other objects.

This is especially true description Begichev campaigns in 1915 and 1921. inland areas of the Taimyr Peninsula, where they were discovered unknown to science rivers, mountain ranges, lakes.

Travel blogs Begichev partly in excerpts were published Bolotnikov NJ (1949), already at the time when the Taimyr area was mostly covered in surveying.

However, the actual geographical discoveries Begichev applied to a modern map can be set through the navigation pad its route, as travel diaries, he daily for ~ to proactive direction (compass) and distance traveled by the way. In 1915 and recorded distance in miles ~ m, estimated by eye, and in 1921 g.- kilometers on the odometer, measured pace of a bicycle wheel, reinforced on the sled.

We have taken a navigation route generation Begichev 1915 and 1921. and its comparison with modern diary cards reveal the original contribution of this researcher in the geographical knowledge of the Taimyr and restore a binding to map his descriptions of terrain, flora and fauna that abound Begichev blogs.

In April 1908 Begichev checking information of local residents on the island bluish in the north of the Khatanga Gulf, established that shown on the map available to him, the peninsula to the north of the Gulf of Noordwijk is in fact an island.

Begichev not only filmed the shooting of his compass, pedometer measuring the distance, but also open sostavil.kartu island. This he gave in 1909, head of the Main Control gidrograficheskogo AI Vilkitsky (Bolotnikov, 1954, p. 150).

The merit Begichev is chtyu he brought to the attention of the scientific community their discovery than allowed X. Laptev question, subscribe to your map from the imaginary isthmus connected the peninsula with the beret, and denied the erroneous conclusion IP Tolmachev that shown Laptev Peninsula matches identified in the 1905 peninsula Uryung-Tumus and bluish island - the island of the Transfiguration.

The area of ??the island Begichev revealed in his memoirs and in a conversation with F. Nansen (1949, p. 114) was exaggerating, but this is probably due to the fact that he pointed it, applying to the exaggerated dimensions of the peninsula (which affected the island) on the map # 229 .

Islands Map Begichev obviously not preserved, so the stone was listed in the index B. Ewald (1917), but the shooting Begichev can be seen in the image of the island, on a temporary Begichev manuscript map drawn up in 1912 (Ewald, 1917, p. 66, # 643) and published Pinhensonam DM (1962, p. 629).

Island Begichev depicted on this map, of course, on the map Begichev transmitted them AI Vilkitsky as mapmaker and 1912 no other surveys of the island could not have. In 1915 Begichev instructed to take out part of the ship`s crew and wintered near Cape Chelyuskin. People with these ships made hiking in Eklils Bay (Western Taimyr), where the ship wintered search.

There and had to come H. Begichev with deer. Its route ran in a completely unexplored territory that European travelers have not been visited.

In March 1915 Begichev left Dudinka village near the village of the accident and Volochanka where purchased 500 deer. May 27, he began his march to the north, paving the course for Eclipse bay and orientiruyas.po little accurate map # 229 (ed. 1874).

In the literature, this event is sometimes mistakenly referred to as 1907 (TSO, 1970 p. 17).

The fact that there was a card Begichev apparently # 229, according to his diary entries: (Bolotnikov, 1954, pp 138, 139.). Note that NJ Bolotnicov there incorrectly explains that the island Nicholas was allegedly opened and named in honor of his Begichev satellite. This error repeats IP Magidovich (1967, p. 574).

A month later, he crossed the path of Lukta River near its confluence with the River Taimyr at the southern foot of the Byrranga.

Not seeing the passage in the ridge and turned west and walked along it in three days. Crossing the river battery whose it is established that it is shown on the map is not correct, current Pyasino in the east, rather than north, in fact.

Rivers were still under the ice and snow, and the intersection of reindeer is not difficult. River Tareyu Begichev crossed kilometers in 15 - 20 above its confluence with the Pyasino and turned to the northwest - to clearly visible tip of White Stone Ridge (modern name).

According Binyudy River Valley (Begichev it does not name) crossed the ridge of the current Begichev. Then the caravan went along the watershed between the upper reaches of rivers and Binyudy Kortselakbygi continue between the sources.

Changing the shape kami Khutudabiga River and its left on. Vegicheva on inflows maps. 5 (18) on June 1. Azur dv19gayas on modern maps. 2. The outline of the island Begichev Shooting seaero north-west, 1PODOShel to Ren. A. Begichev in 1909. 3. Khutudabiga river that flowed on the job Islands Marine inventory of l / t in 1913. 4. The outlines 6e- pad across the road. - So he mentioned it in his diary.

After crossing the river two days were the same course, but 9 (22) in June blocked the way. It was the present river Goose, from her Begichev taped by the current hill of Cape markedly noticeable. C, coastal elevations, called (according to rank on the map ~ # 712), Begichev saw the sea.

10 (23) of June, leaving the camp in the afternoon going from Goose River Begichev moved one towards the sea, to better define its place. On the right, he saw a large river (now the Lazy River) and lower it along the z sea.

(AAN, p. 47, Op. 5, d. 1, p. 62). The fact that this was the Cape Sterlegov, he learned, probably later, having been on this river and discuss it later called Tamara. In his diary in 1915 that name yet, but is referred to as the river Tamar to his biography (AAN, f. 47, op. 5, d. 1, p. 62).

The Lazy River estuary took fin and returned to the camp. 12 (25) On June the whole caravan towards the narrowest point of the river close to the sea, and he swam down Begichev UR her kayak. I choose a place for the crossing in 10 miles above the mouth. But Begichev was not yet convinced that it is necessary to cross the river, as inaccurate knew his place.

Therefore, 14 (27) June, he crossed a river lazy and went to Resurrection bay, where (AAN, p. 75, o, p. 6, d. 58, n. 11).

16 (29) June, he began crossing the river Lazy all his reindeer. At the same time he claimed kayak Begichev jumped him in the water, swimming and pribuisiroval caught up to the shore. (Ibid, p. 12). After crossing the caravan DWI ~ nuloya to the northeast along the coast 10 km from the sea.

Two days later, we came to.

It was the present river Pomegranate, Begichev in 1915 it did not name. June 21 (4 July) to see the mast Betichev left the camp and went to light the vessel. In the current bay Slyudyanka he saw a tent and Russian sailors - it was a party of Lieutenant A. Transit, which led the survey berera here. With them he came to and passed the post. A few days later to the ship drove all the deer. Loaded onto sleds property sailors and food, 2 (15) July caravan went south.

On the way back Begichev not kept detailed records about the direction and distance traveled per day. Therefore, to restore its way back is much more difficult. Two days later, the general course of the path to the southwest stopped (ie. E. The river Pomegranate), and in two days` journey came to the Lazy River near the mouth of the river Baffling. Two days went up the river Lazy before turning its headwaters to the east.

10 (23) July Lazy crossed the river in the vicinity of its left tributary of the first, and went to the south to the ridge Byrranga. Begichev not adhered to the old road, and led directly to the caravan, with the top of the landmark mountain current breakwater 546 meters in height, which he called.

After two days` march arrived to the present river Venta in which bathed. Seeing that she had gone to the south, we went along it, and 14 (27) July Byrranga crossed the ridge in the valley of this river. She led travelers to the upper reaches of the river Tarei that ientsy identified, saw the current lake Ayaturku called them. August 2 came to the mouth of Tarei where boats were waiting Seeds Durakova. The sailors on the boat went down Pyasine iIIype to the river and on it - to Golchihi. Begichev, short one-day journey to Tarei, received mail and an order to return to the Cape Wild.

Apparently, the same way Begichev came 2 (15) in August to Cape Wild. It moved to the bay of the Resurrection make the sled for the export command, if the ship did not come down from the rocks off the island of Small.

Returning 17 (30) in August to Cape Wild found a letter left B. Vilkitsky, that his ships have passed safely to the south, and Begichev can return to Dudinka. Before leaving, e Begichev went on the hunt to the Gulf of Middendorf.

1 (14), came from Cape Wild, walking with deer along the shore and watched the sea which was clean. Lazy River has moved over the ice 14 (27) of September, having gone before that the Cape Farewell, looking out to sea from here; 16 (29) On September went on notable hill, looked at the sea horizon, everywhere is clean, convinced that the court Vilkitsky safely passed. 1 (14) October Begichev Luge went way south.

Already 5 (18) October reached (Mount Breakwater), and 10 days later - to the mouth of the river on Yantody Pyasine. With the machine Vvedenskoe October 25 left, and in the evening on October 26 came to the village of Dudinka.

In 1921, on behalf of Sibrevkoma Begichev I had to go to Dixon and vzyavtam captain of the Norwegian ship wintered and interpreter, to go along the coast of Taimyr to the northeast to find the next two Norwegians sent R. Amundsen in 1919, g., From the Cape Chelyuskin to the island of Dixon. In April 1921 Begichev left in Dudinka area Tagenarakogo portage - to where Nganasan hired about 500 deer. Supporting batch with 300 deer headed ientsem Chuta he sent to the Tamar River (Hutudabita), and with the rest of the deer went, across the tundra to Dixon.

River Pyasino he moved near the mouth of the river Nyuroty. 50 km west of Pyasina crossed the river Mokridi (Mvkoritto) and Eskim (Yakima). Further, the path from Pyasina ran 20 km south of Boughton-river (lower Buotankada), which he then crossed near its mouth, at Pura River and caiMy Puru - 50 in them, above its confluence with the Pyaoinu. It went along the northern shores of Lake Tsadudatu ~ CGR, and further, to the west, on the backbone, with whom he had seen in the North Sea.

In early June, the caravan stopped several east cape polynya, Begichev several sleds came to the radio station Dixon. Taking that ~ m Captain L. Jacobsen and interpreter A. Larsen, 8 (21) On June Begichev came to the camp to the east of his caravan. I wonder what he drove, with a few hundred or even dozens of meters away from the snow-covered remains of P. Tessema since had to pass near South Mountain, where a year later they were found. 12 days (from 8 to 20 June), the caravan went to Bekicheva Pyasine on the current bank of Peter Chichagova. The diary mentions the river Lethal () and Zeledeevo (without names). June 21 crossed on the ice -Pyasinu 50 kilometers below the confluence with the river Pura.

It was taken NO 8` general course (magnetic), a caravan that went to the meeting with the auxiliary, the party, which was published earlier on the River Tamar ~ (~ Hutuda Bigu). In this way first crossed the lofty tundra in the lower reaches of the metacarpal, then four days were between the low-lying delta Pyasina and spurs of the mountain range of the current Begichev. The diary Begichev said crossing rivers: Kuchumki, Loshpuna Kuznetsova, wandered, Quiet.

Russian name of the river, probably gave himself Begichev. It dokazgvaet that his company did not know Nganasans these rivers.

Crossing the river wandered (now the Four River) and unnamed left tributary of the River Tamar (Khutudabiga) Begichev 13iyunya Tamara came to the river, near the confluence where it saw two right tributaries Chuty tent with 300 deer who came here earlier. During the three day overt transition passed away 64 km northeast and 19 June came to Lydia River (Lazy). First we walked along the river and crossed its left tributary, and then across the river lazy and its right tributary (river current is not clear).

Three days later, we came to present Pomegranate river, along which came down to, the sea. They passed sledges left Begichev at the mouth of the river Pomegranate in 1915. It became a caravan camping and Begichev Norwegians went on to Cape Wild. They found a note left in November 1919 TESSEMA P. and P. Knutson; June 30 came over the caravan in their tracks to the west along the coast, following a 5 - 10 km from, the coast. Begichev with the Norwegians on examining the shore. August 2 at Cape Sterlegov was found abandoned by someone sled.

From Lazy River Begichev caravan moved along the coast in the south-west. The evening of August 6 was considered that the current coastal Begichev of Ministers ~ Competitions. Misunderstanding arose from the fact that it happens at the map # 712 Markgam island was struck much closer to shore than in reality. Since the current competition in the island map # 712 depicted not an island, and an array of promontory be somewhat Begichev for Cape noticeably took Mikhailov Peninsula, which lies south of the island Markgama.

August 8th caravan camped three kilometers to the southwest of the volcano markedly. Begichev Norwegians went to the beach, but could not cross the river goose and went back to the camp. Entries Begichev that day confirm that Cape noticeably ~ m he called all the current, Mikhailov Peninsula. For example, he points to his length of 35 - 40 km to the west, the presence on its northern shore (gap filler) and a second conspicuous hill (hill Zaozernaya) as well. For them it is seen from a distance saw Scott Hansen Islands, of which the most notable are two. From the mouth of Goose River, they seem to be lying near the tip of Cape markedly (the peninsula Mikhailova).

caravan crossed the river goose and 9 August, passing to the south-west 14 km, came to (the eastern lagoon in the bay Mikhailova), PDE encamped. The next day, the Norwegians, found viewing Beach Cape noticeable, ie. E. The southern coast of the peninsula Mikhailova and Begichev one went to the south.

Going round, he went to the Cape. Under Begichev meant narrow peninsula, the lagoon is fenced off in the eastern bay of the top Mikhailova.

On a gravel spit, which ended with a narrow peninsula, he found the remains of a large fire and traces of people parking. The next day he was brought to the Norwegians scythe with which they buried the remains, as they thought, or Tessema Knutsen, and put an end to the inscription on a zinc plate, next to which Begichev strengthened pillar with its inscription. In 1974, this post with the inscription found here the participants of the expedition sports newspaper. Place column have AV Shumilov, studied diaries Begichev for 1921 on August 11, the camp from the bay Mikhailov was transferred to the west bank of the river current diorite. When you try to take osmyutret south Begichev and Jacobsen have seen that here. Under the bay they understand the current Leningradites Strait, blocking the passage to the mortgage. So we went to the south along the bay (Leningradites Strait). During the four days of running the caravan reached the mouth of the Tamar River (Khutudabiga), where travelers met pyudstavu Nenets reindeer Chuty. In a way Begichev examined myurya Beach with coastal heights and saw that the most seaward section of the Minina Skerries, where they were messengers pryuhodit R. Amundsen yutdelen from the original bank numerous straits.

So he decided to go Pyasino and go to the island of Dixon, where Jacobsen and Larsen was waiting ship.

August 18 ,, moved south crossed the river Tamar. Over the following days, 19 - 25 August in the journal Begichev (... AAN, ? 47, Op 5, 6) No entries: someone else before entering this manuscript pulled out two sheets in the archives of the Academy of Sciences. In the description pyuhoda constituting the words Begichev later recorded: (AAN, p 47 wn 5, d 8, 9 liters of ~ b....).

As an analysis of its further route for Begichev August 21 adopted the current duct Staritsa, and for its mouth - the waters between the current ostrovyum Fairway and Cape Starozhilov, which now can be seen the ruins of an old winter quarters, which consisted of four rooms.

There were cabin, Verhnepyasinskoe first yutmechennoe navigator D.Sterlegovym in 174O tons. TYuM that from the mouth of the river Khutudabiga (Tamara) Begichev left it here, it is easy to make a reverse lining its route from the reached later infusion of ~ ing metacarpal rivers and streams Kuchumki . August 22, passing (t. e. to the east along the north bank of the Staritsa) 15 miles, stopped, meeting one another. From this point on August 27 crossed to the south bank, Staritsa ducts, in place of the crossing Begichev put in a high place your saaac inscribed.

This sign must be located on the north bank of the Staritsa, about 10 km north east of its input Cape. anyone pyuzdnee this post, it is not known.

28 - 29 August the travelers moved on the right bank of the mouth of the marsh Pyasina, crossing small rivers and streams. Here they were overtaken by a strong snowstorm. When the blizzard ended, Begichev saw that he was close to - mouth of the metacarpal, to the north of this island worker. Approaching, they saw (it was dry flow) through which crossed to the west bank. Having 4 mile to the west, we saw a broad river (width of up to 7 miles). Begichev realized that this is the real Pyasina and earlier (27 August), he crossed ~ (AAN, f. 47, op. 6, d. 8, p. 11). Having 7 km south Begichev convinced that the caravan came to the island. Therefore, on August 31 he CONTINUE? ~ Pa ~ curled back on the right 6eper ducts dry.

Few knew the river south Begichev Kuchumku, on 6 September the caravan finally came to Pyaoine. Hence Begichev two Norwegians sailed in boats to the south, abandoning the intention to go to Dixon. September 11 travelers landed on the western shore of the metacarpal slightly higher Pura River.

From here on several reindeer sleds Begichev and Norwegians went already through the snow to the south.

September 17 they crossed the frozen river Buotankatu and camped on a hill 20 km south of the river. This hill Begichev calls Mammoth-hill (now nameless height with 137M mark), apparently due to its location on the remains of a mammoth.

The next day, the travelers crossed the river in 80 Puru them west from its source, size and configuration Betichev which is probably from the words of the Nenets, describes in detail in his diary. With the crossing place, he zapelengoval Mammoth-hill and lies 50 miles south-east hill-Shaitan (currently nameless height of 204 meters with a mark), located 30 km west of Lake Purinskogo. From the river the travelers went all ~ time in the south-west, crossed the river agape and its tributary - the river: Cossack. 5 October they reached the headwaters Yakovleva River, a tributary of the Yenisei ~ ing, then crossed the river Muksunihu and 12 October arrived in the village of Dudinka.

Begichev summer of 1922 participated in the expedition geologist NN Urvantseva, which went on the boat with the geological survey, the river Pyasine from the upper reaches to the mouth, and made the sea ~ hike along the coast from the mouth to the mouth of the Yenisei Pyaeiny.

By participating in this expedition, Begichev found abandoned P. Teosemom mail and items snaryakeniya 2 km east of the mouth of the river Zededeeva; I found a board with the inscription FA navigator Minin, established in 174O, the Cape at this polynya, as well as the remains of P. Tessema Dixon on the eastern shore of the harbor.

Although this campaign is described Urvantsev N. (1975), it is of interest transcript area names used N. Begichev in his diary.