Date of Birth: 11/17/1749
Place of birth: Chalons-en-Champagne
The inventor of conservation
French pastry, the inventor of the system hermetic canning products; It is widely regarded as the father of `konservirovaniya`.
In the period from 1784 to 1795-th-th Upper she worked in Paris (Paris) and pastry chef. In 1795th he began to experiment with different approaches to the preservation of the products; he experimented with soups, vegetables, juices, dairy products, jellies, jams and various syrups. Upper canned their products in glass jars; These banks were sealed plugs were filled with wax and then thoroughly boiled. The general idea of ??Nicolas invented fairly quickly, but full attention to detail required considerable time.
In 1795th French army offered a prize of 12,000 francs for a fundamentally new - and, most importantly, effective - method of food storage. In total, the experiments have Appert took about 14-15 years; however, during this period the prize has remained unclaimed.
In January 1810 the first confectioner got a long-awaited prize and the award personally from Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon Bonaparte). The same year saw the light of labor Appert `Art conservation and animal products ovoschey` (` L`Art de conserver les substances animales et v & # 233; g & # 233; tales`) - the first cookbook devoted to canning techniques.
Based near Paris, the company `La Maison Appert` was the first factory of its kind; interesting that the production of its Upper began even before Louis Pasteur (Louis Pasteur) officially proved that the bacteria are killed by heating. Patented his invention, Upper began producing canned products of wide assortment. The factory Nicolas products - meat, eggs, milk and ready-made meals - were placed in a special wide-mouth bottle, which was sealed on the already well-established pattern. Slaughter stopper into the neck by a special clamp; then the bottle is wrapped in a special cloth and dropped into boiling water. Between the cap and the actual product remains a small layer of air; however, subsequent boiling destroys all living things that could be in this layer (as well as in the food or in the vessel). The time required for the `bottle varki` determined Upper personally.
In honor of the inventor of the canning process for some time called `apperizatsiya`; however, this term is not really caught on. This process is slightly different from the later invented pasteurization - Upper temperature when cooking using much higher than Pasteur, which often affected the taste of processed products is not the most positive way.
Appert`s method was so simple and efficient that it began to be used throughout Europe. However, for a long time remained the only method apperizatsiya not - in 1810, British inventor (French, by the way, of origin), Peter Durant (Peter Durand) has developed its own preservation scheme, built on the use of cans. In 1812 the two bought the English patent Bryan Donkin (Bryan Donkin) and John Hall (John Hall); Together, they put the production of canned food to a new level. Total apperizatsiya 10 years in the USA came; cans, by the way, became really popular until much later - to open them was too difficult. Long time cans opened only a hammer and chisel. Only in 1855 the Englishman Robert Yates (Robert Yates) invented the can opener and modern type cans went into `narod`.