Mihail Dragomanov

Picture of Mihail Dragomanov

Date of Birth: 08/30/1841

Age: 53

Place of birth: Gadyach

Citizenship: Ukraine


He graduated from the course at the University of Kiev, where he joined the circle of students, founded Sunday schools, and free taught history in school, prepare teachers for rural schools, open that it was decided in the kinds of counter Polish propaganda as teacher-students were not removed from there by order of the Ministry of Public education. Great influence on political education had Dragomanova Polish movement. A native of the left-bank Ukraine, Drahomanov had before entering the university "visual concepts" of the Poles: sympathizing with them as the victims of despotism, it is, however, a Ukrainian, was full of historical memories of the oppression of Ukraine Poland. The social and political aspirations of Ukrainians were then varied and unclear. Drahomanov Ukrainian nationalistic circles, their disregard for Russian literature and culture in general seemed reactionary; especially resented him their willingness to go hand in hand in the fight with the Polish government. On the other hand, unconditional sympathy of some circles to the Poles Dragomanova drawn together with the Ukrainians, gave a sharp rebuff to the Polish claims to Western Ukraine. Even more alike in Dragomanova Ukrainians pedagogical interests: he even joined the Ukrainian organization - "Community" to learn that it requires to proceed to the publication of popular books. Upon completion of the course Dragomanov was defined geography teacher in Kiev 2 school. In 1864 he defended his thesis pro venia legendi "The Emperor Tiberius", and since 1865 Faculty instructed him to read a required course for the general history of the rights of the staff of associate professor. Cooperating in the "Petersburg Vedomosti" (Editor VF Korsch), Drahomanov often wrote about the political situation in the south-western edge. From the time he began to write articles on the Slavic question, which deals with the Russian-Polish and Slavic in general business from the point of view of democratic-federal Slavic congress in Moscow (1867). At that time it was introduced in the left-bank Ukraine, the district council, and Zemstvo (mainly, Chernigov) drew attention to the need for the use of the Ukrainian language in local schools. It was the first approximation of Drahomanov as a journalist, with public figures: the discussion of the immediate tasks of Russian social and political life soon became the center of journalistic activity Drahomanov. In the article "Zemstvo and local element in training", "On the pedagogical value of Little Russian language", and others. Dragomanov sold with the views of the then trustee of the Kiev school district, Prince Shirinsky-Shikhmatov, the enemy is not only the national but also the secular element in the initial training. Dragomanov, based on teaching experience, was the need to start training with Ukrainian folk literature and only gradually move to Great-Russian literary and popular language. On Dragomanova hit "Moscow News" and Shirinsky-Shikhmatov Prince sent to the Ministry of Education report that Dragomanov - "separatist". When, after the defense in 1869 master`s thesis ( "The question of the historical significance of the Roman Empire and Tacitus"), Dragomanov was elected full-time lecturer, his assertion in that position it was postponed until his return from a trip abroad. According Drahomanova report Shirinsky-Shikhmatov permanently attach it to the Ukrainian direction. From studies of general and Roman history research interests Dragomanova gradually shifted to the study of the Ukrainian and Slavic folk art. In this area are the main scientific achievements of his. Ethnography and history of oral folk literature, he erected on the degree of the science of the totality of the spiritual life of the people (folk) .Issledovaniyami of stray legends and tales, he revealed that the creations of individual nations recognized as original and as important to the understanding of "the people`s soul" many international elements. Dragomanov works on folklore, not only gave him the material for the research findings in this area: they fueled his socio-political mood. In its outlook of cosmopolitanism or internationalism, recognizing the universal culture of the fruit of creativity, did not deny the private national variations of common ideas and forms. Study of Ukrainian folk literature, especially of political songs, Drahomanov led to conclusions which are important for practical politics: the Ukrainians, according to Dragomanov, should play an important role in the formulation of broad federal-democratic issue in Eastern Europe. Drahomanov stayed abroad for three years (1870 - 1873). He writes in that time a number of journalistic works, developing the ideas of political federalism and democracy; closely acquainted with the life of Galicia; takes part in the Galician media; this was later an external reason to remove it from the University of Kiev. In 1875 he followed a series of denunciations of Drahomanov, and he was dismissed by the Ministry of the third paragraph. Shortly thereafter, he went abroad to carry out propaganda in the Russian and foreign press to establish a printing press Ukrainian freestyle. Since the first overseas editions Dragomanova in Austria were confiscated, he settled in Geneva, where he lived until the fall of 1889, when invited was Professor of World History at Sofia University. In Sofia Drahomanov died, June 8, 1895 Significance of Drahomanov as a journalist, is based mainly on the second, the period of its activities overseas, although its thought leadership, as it allowed Russian censorship conditions were formulated before his emigration. The traditions of the struggle for political freedom ever since the Decembrists did not disappear in the Russian progressive society, but Drahomanov as the first serial constitutionalist was the first realist-politician in the Russian emigration in the Russian political journalism. In 1876, a decree was issued, almost forbidding Ukrainian literature. For Dragomanova this decree was not only the collapse of the Ukrainian aspirations dear to him, but also evidence of increasing political oppression for all of Russia. It`s in his eyes, highlights the need for personal and social freedom for the Russian people. And Drahomanov not only formulated the task: he thought, and on issues where there are forces to solve it, which means are suitable and acceptable in the struggle for liberation. "Pure business requires clean hands", - said Dragomanov political pamphlet written by him about the Crimean War, and this motto has remained faithful to the end of his days. Formulation of practical policy objectives under the control of high moral postulates was a distinctive feature of Drahomanov as a publicist. Hence his denial of terror as a means of political struggle. Convinced of the positivist and rationalist in their philosophical views, Drahomanov was an idealist in politics. Financial strength in domestic issues - not all, and not even the most important. That`s why the main part of the work of obtaining political freedom was reduced to Dragomanova to assimilate "all educated people of different tribes of the population of Russia" started underlying Russian Zemsky movement and requiring the integrity of the fundamental rights of persons and local authorities, secured the municipality state ( "Zemsky Liberalism in Russia" ). Zemstvo, in the eyes of Dragomanov, it is a means of organizing freedom: the inviolability of the rights of local self-government placed them next to the inviolability of the rights of persons. The constitutional project elaborated Drahomanov ( "Free Union"), introduced the definition of the competence of local government, greatly enhanced the creation of a larger and therefore more powerful than the provincial Zemstvo units - regional zemstvo. The decentralization of government and regional autonomy Dragomanov saw the best means of resolving the national question in Russia, including those close to him Ukrainian question. From the European socialists Dragomanov most borrowed from Proudhon, but remained statist; protest against contemporary forms of centralized state, it still recognizes the need for transitional forms of statehood. Federalism Dragomanova flowed logically from consistent democracy. The national question was permitted them by the formula: "cosmopolitanism to nationalism in the forms and methods." Ukrainian question Dragomanov devoted two series: "Chudatski pillows ukrainsku natsionalnu about the right" and "Leaves on naddnipryansku Ukraina", published in separate books (of which only the first and only in 1913 and came out in Russia, in a slightly abridged edition). Ukrainian movement considered here historically and critically, his nationalist and chauvinist elements condemned as reactionary, but the very essence of the nation as well-known forms of solidarity between people, having recognized the enormous social and cultural value. On the question of independence of the Ukrainian culture views Dragomanova experienced some broken around 1876 first he was very close to the recognition of the formula: "Books for Home Appliances", although raised the issue in a broader perspective. Later, he recognized the need for a comprehensive national cultural creation, arguing that "every person who retired from Ukraine, every penny that we spent not on the Ukrainian business, every word is not in Ukrainian, has a consumption of peasant Ukrainian treasury rate, which at present conditions will not return to her out of nowhere. " Summing up the results of its activities, in response to anniversary greetings, Drahomanov wrote that the main business of his life, he believes the desire to implement in practical politics are the guiding ideology, to which in 40 years came the glorious Cyril and Methodius brothers and which formed the basis of Ukrainian loving the people Dragomanova and his comrades in their younger years. Drahomanov the question of nationalism and cosmopolitanism are often met with complete lack of understanding in the various national and community groups, and criticism, which he, from his point of view, subjected the programs and performances of various groups, clubs and parties, often displeased those whom directed its tip . Discontent is becoming a source of opposing and often absurd charges. Ukrainian nationalists accused him of cosmopolitanism, and Russophilism obrusitelstve; Russian radicals and revolutionaries, resentful of their criticism of centralism ( "Historical Poland and Great-Russian democrat"), saw him as a Ukrainian chauvinist, a Polish magazine even called "Moscow agent". Becoming an all-Russian, zemstvo constitutional movement is represented by Dragomanova its ideologue. Since the end of 1882 he became editor of "free speech", declared authority "Zemsky Union" (publication ceased in May 1883 as a result of the triumph of reaction in Russia). B. Bogucharsky ( "From the history of political struggle in the 70s and 80s of the XIX century.") Asserts that Drahomanov was wound "in the dense forest" clever hoax Count PP Shuvalov, who was the invention of himself, "Zemsky Union". The controversy caused by this statement (mainly - BA Kistyakovsky book "Pages of the Past"), has established its groundlessness. "The Free Word", under the editorship of Drahomanov played the role of conductor of the constitutional aspirations and as such recognized "his" constitutionalists in Russia, regardless of whether or not there was a "Zemsky Union", as an organization Zemstvo-constitutionalists. Drahomanov had a great influence in the struggle Galician parties. Without exaggeration, we can say that the Europeanization of Galicia began with Drahomanov. In his first visit to Galicia Dragomanov found that Galicians, despite its more westerly position behind more ideologically from Europe than the Russians. We had a plan to extend Dragomanova in Galicia Ukrainian direction through the new Russian literature; its democratic and secular nature of it, for the calculation of Dragomanov, was to undermine in Galicia clericalism and bureaucracy. In an effort to raise the Ukrainian national life in Russia and Austria to the European level, Europe Dragomanov acquainted with the position of the Ukrainian issue, with the development of Ukrainian literature, with the persecution of Ukrainian culture, which has spoken with articles in German, French, Italian and English press. Drahomanov published with his comments two volumes of correspondence Herzen and Turgenev Ogarev, Kavelin and Bakunin, giving highly valuable material for the study of Russian public. "Collection of political writings" Dragomanov published in Paris in 1905 - 1906 years the editorship of "Liberation". In Russia came in 1908 t I "political writings" Dragomanov -. A collection of articles under the title "The center and outskirts", with the application of article B. Kistyakovsky devoted to the characterization of political views, literary activities and biographies Dragomanova. In Lviv, Drahomanov published articles in the Ukrainian language of the folk literature and Ukrainian literature: "Rozvidki Drahomanov about ukrainsku folk slovesnist and pismenstvo". In 1876, in Kiev Dragomanov produced a very important book, "Little Russian folk legends and stories"; in 1874 - 1875 years in collaboration with Professor VB Antonovich issued the "Historical songs Little Russian people"; all critical comments belong here Drahomanov. The continuation of this work was published in Geneva in two editions: "Novi ukrainski pisni Gromadska at the right" (1764 - 1880) in 1881 and ". Politic pisni Ukrainian people XVIII and XIX centuries", Part I, in 1883, to about Dragomanova currently, there is a whole literature of books, magazine and newspaper articles. Chief among them: M. Pavlik, "MP Dragomanov, 1841 - 1895, his anniversary, death, autobiography and Lists happening" (Lviv, 1896); Franko "Zhitepis Drahomanova zhite and the word" (1894, Book I); his "Suspilno-politic Look Drahomanov" ( "Literature and Science Vistnik.", 1906, book 8); M. Pavlik "Drahomanov and Rola Rozwi in Ukraine" (Lviv, 1907); Yefremov "History ukrainskogo pismenstva" (SPb., 1911). For biographies and characteristics of attitudes and activities is extremely important Dragomanova Dragomanova correspondence with various Galician actors and writers, published by M. Pavlik I. Franco, etc., as well as the "Austro-Ruthenian spomini" Drahomanov (Lvov, 1889 - 1892).; his own, "public schools in Ukraine" (Geneva, 1877); his own, "Two teachers - KI Polevich Stronin and AI" (Lviv, 1902). Dragomanova autobiography published in the journal "Past" (June, 1906). A number of ethnographic works Dragomnova placed in the Bulgarian "Collection for the people and umotvoreniya knizhnina". Dragomanov participated in the preparation of volume geography Reclus devoted to Ukraine. Interesting letter to Drahomanov M. Stassiulevitch, in which the magazine - "Journal of Europe" - Drahomanov put in 70 years some remarkable articles were included in the fifth volume of "Archives M. Stasyulevich" (St. Petersburg, 1913.). M. Mohyla.