Date of Birth: 06/22/1899
Place of Birth: Lodz
Michal was born in Lodz, Poland (& # 321; & # 243; d & # 378 ;, Poland). About his early life little is known - is largely due to the fact that they came into the era of the Nazi occupation.
In 1917 Kalecki received a bachelor`s degree and then entered the University of Warsaw (University of Warsaw), where he began to study civil engineering. Student Michal was extremely attentive - even before completing his studies, he developed a generalization of Pascal`s theorem on a hexagon inscribed in a curve of the second degree. Alas, after a certain time, Kalecki`s father lost his main source of income - a small textile workshop; he managed to find an accountant, but Michal had yet to leave school and start earning a living. From 1918 to 1921-th Kalecki spent in the army; having served his own, Kalecki went to Gdansk Polytechnic (Polytechnic of Gdansk).
During training in Gdansk and Warsaw Michal I was first introduced to economic theory - if somewhat informally. Kalecki studied mainly works unorthodox sense - like the works of Mikhail Tugan-Baranovsky and Rosa Luxemburg. The impact of these two economists felt in further works of Michal. In 1924 Kalecki had to finish his studies at the institute; Unfortunately, his father lost his job again - and this time Michael was forced to leave school forever. Kalecki again began to look for work; for a while he was collecting information about job seekers loans and writing economic articles in different newspapers. Experience in the analysis of statistical data to help him get - however, only in 1929, after five years of searching - the Research Institute of prices and business processes (Research Institute of Business Cycle and Prices, RIBCP).
18 June 1930 Michal married Ada Zhternfeld (Ada Szternfeld).
In 1933 Kalecki published `Essay on the theory of the business cycle deyatelnosti`, which summed up most of the available his thoughts on various economic issues and anticipated printed only after two years of Keynes`s work. In October, Michal represented his essay in front of the International Association of econometricians (International Econometrics Association); in 1935 he published in two major economic journals. Readers of the essay is not particularly impressed, however, a number of positive reviews Michal yet received.
In fellowships Kalecki went to Sweden - where he met with followers of Knut Uiksella (Knut Wicksell), worked on a similar theory; acquainted with the works of Keynes, Michal went to England. With John Keynes, Kalecki met in 1937; alas, a special friendship they have failed; Moreover, Keynes carefully ignored the fact that Michal published before him.
In 1937, another Michael Landau Ludwig (Ludwig Landau), expelled from RIBCP for political reasons; in protest Kalecki gone after him. Subsequent events have shown that Michal incredibly lucky - do not leave it to Poland before the war, his future might have been much more sad; in fact, Jewish blood in his veins would not have left him virtually no chance.
In 1940 Kalecki hired the Oxford Institute of Statistics (Oxford Institute of Statistics); Michal engaged mainly in writing reports on the management of the war economy to the British government. Alas, government economists these reports was not taken seriously. Despite all the hardships of wartime, Michal still managed to write during this period a number of important works.
In 1945 Kalecki concluded that Oxford did not appreciate and prefer to leave the Institute. Some time Michal held in Paris (Paris) and Montreal (Montreal); In June 1946, the Polish government invited him to head the Central Planning Office of the Ministry of Economy (Central Planning Office of the Ministry of Economics) - however, there Kalecki worked only a few months.
At the end of 1946, Michal moved to Paris - where he was offered a post in the Economic Department of the Secretariat of the United Nations (Economic Department of the United Nations Secretariat). Having worked at the UN for 8 years, Kalecki resigned from there in 1954 - because of political differences.
In 1955, Michal returned to Poland - and this time settled there permanently. Kalecki was sure that he would be able to hold a number of quite important reforms; alas, the full understanding and support from the leadership of the country he win and failed. Disillusioned with politics, Michal switched to research and teaching; among other things, he remembered his school experiences and resumed his studies in mathematics; the study of the theory of numbers and probability theory helped him to forget about the political fiasco. Seriously improved his mood and the fact that most of its economic discoveries were finally realized in full and were extremely useful for the development of science in general. During his last visit to Cambridge (Cambridge) at the scientific conference Michal literally struck listeners outright fabrications its clarity; no less struck by surrounding and biography Kalecki - few would be able to carry through such a ordeal sincere attraction to science and the desire to improve the world.
Michal Kalecki died on April 4, 1970; at the time of death, the great economist, was 70 years old. Despite the fact that the world has truly suffered irreparable loss - Kalecki was not just a brilliant scientist, but also an incredibly energetic and highly moral man - a legacy Michal lives to this day; more and more it is called the true founder of Keynesianism.