Date of Birth: 03/02/1931
Place of birth: c. Privolnoe
Last Tsar USSR
Mikhail Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931-th in the village Privolnoe, district of the Stavropol Territory, in the Russian-Ukrainian emigrant family from Voronezh and Chernigov provinces. Both of his grandfathers were falsely accused in 1930; paternal grandfather, Andrey Moiseevich, was exiled to Siberia. Another grandfather, Pantelei Gopkalo, accused of Trotskyism, tortured, abused and almost shot. Later, Michael said that the stories of his grandfather on his mother became one of the reasons why it is a hostile attitude to the Soviet regime.
Gorbachev`s father, Sergey A., was the operator of the combine, and a veteran of the Second World War. His mother, Maria Panteleevna, worked on the farm. In the teenage years, Michael not only studied, but also worked in a collective farm and MTS. With 15 years he worked as an assistant combine operator. In 1955 Gorbachev graduated from Moscow State University with a degree in law. He`s got brown agronomist and economist in the Stavropol Agricultural Institute, which he graduated from in 1967. While still a student, Michael joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and soon became very active in its affairs.
His future wife, Raisa Tiratenko, Gorbachev met at Moscow State University. They married in 1953 and after graduation moved to Stavropol. In 1957 the couple had a daughter, Irina M. Virganskaya (Irina M.Virganskaya). Raisa died of leukemia in 1999. Ten years later, Gorbachev wrote seven favorite songs of his wife, `disc Songs for Raisy`. He sang all the songs with the support of Andrei Makarevich (Andrei Makarevich).
In 1970, Gorbachev was appointed first secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee of the CPSU in 1974 - the first secretary of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and then in 1979 became a member of the Politburo. After the death of Leonid Brezhnev and Andropov period `mezhduvlastiya` and Chernenko, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary of the Politburo in 1985.
Gorbachev was the seventh and last leader of the Soviet Union, served as general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991-th. He remained the head of the Soviet state from 1988 to 1991, before the August coup, when in fact been removed from power Gennady Yanayev, head of the Emergency Committee and vice-president of the USSR. Gorbachev claimed that after the dismissal of his isolated village of Foros in the Crimea.
December 25, 1991 th Gorbachev in a televised address to the nation declared that `on principle soobrazheniyam` resigns as president of the USSR. 26 December adopted a declaration on the dissolution of the USSR. According to the signed decree of Gorbachev, the former Soviet leader handed over control of strategic nuclear weapons Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Gorbachev later expressed regret that not exiled Yeltsin `harvested bananas in the country` kakuyu-nibud when Yeltsin Plenum demanded to delete from CC members.
Glasnost and perestroika Gorbachev`s policy, as well as the summit with US President Ronald Reagan and the reorientation of Soviet strategic goals, all this helped to end the Cold War, to deprive the leadership of the Communist Party in the government, but at the same time the USSR collapsed.
In 1996, Gorbachev ran vprezidenty the Russian Federation; he collected just 0.51% of the total votes. He became the leader of 2000 established March 11 the Russian United Social Democratic Party, which in 2001 joined the SDPR. Gorbachev led SDPR from 2001 to 2004.
information appeared in April of 2014 that some State Duma deputies have filed a request to the Prosecutor General`s Office, which was supposed to begin checking the actions of Gorbachev during his tenure at the helm of the Soviet Union. Deputies believe that Gorbachev should be held legally responsible for the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the need to initiate criminal case against him.
The main feature in the appearance of Mikhail Gorbachev, a large birthmark on his forehead, has attracted much attention from critics, cartoonists and those who `gadaet` for birthmarks. Kto-to offered him to remove `` scarlet spot surgically, but Gorbachev refused, arguing that it could be accused of is that it is more concerned with their appearance than matters of state. Still, the official photographic portraits of Gorbachev`s birthmark retouch.