Date of Birth: 03/30/1854
Place of birth: Kamenetz-Podolsk
Five years in the province. Savin was born March 30, 1854 in Kamenetz-Podolsk, the son of a provincial teacher Podramentseva GN, who later became a provincial actor and mediocre acting under the stage name Stremlyanov. This is an alias used and his daughter, who played on stage since 15 years. A year later, she married actor Savina NN and acted under his name. A few years later Savina has become a symbol of St. Petersburg theater.
Five years in the province was a time of creative development of the young actress is difficult to find his stage face, and a fierce struggle for their human dignity, little tsenivsheesya in the environment. Odessa, Smolensk, Bobruisk, Minsk, Kharkov, Kaluga, Orel, Saratov, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod - the city of the future wanderings premershi theater capital.
The famous theater impresario P.M.Medvedev, the discoverer of many talents of actor, to get into the company of which was considered for a provincial actor great success and honor, immediately drew attention to the young actress. Savina partner on stage, as the future prime Alexandrinka V.N.Davydov recalls: "Modest, quiet, but with a sly little eyes, with a sonorous melodic voice, all graceful, fragile - it was charming in operetta and comedy ... Then it was already possible to guess, that of Savina eventually develop into a good actress. It had character, loved the scene to oblivion and was able to work, not hoping for inspiration. " With her determination, twenty provincial actress went to conquer Petersburg.
Savin in the role of ingenue. The first scenic steps Savina had roles in the role of ingenue. She played a young, charming, naive girls, sly, flirtatious and sensitive - until the beginning of 1890, when she moved to a different repertoire who reveals the rich side of the actress talent. With impeccable theatrical flair, drama actress feared, the more tragic repertoire. Romantic drama and even comedy in verse, were outside the capabilities of the actress. And yet all his life sought Savina own dramatic means subordinate to its rather narrow range, turning your weaknesses into their strengths.
Receptive music, plastics, rhythm Savina enthusiastically sang and danced in Offenbach operettas, vaudeville, played comedies unpretentious modest women in cotton dresses and shawls, naturally migrated to the provincial scaffold on stage Alexandrinsky Theater in 1874.
For the imperial capital of the theater of the time, is in crisis, Savin was a godsend. Her natural charm, elegance and fluency technique were noted immediately metropolitan criticism: "Since Madame Savina Russian theater came to life and reminds of the golden old days of his age, when artists played with inspiration ...; it utterly simple game, excellent diction, with graceful in posture and grace of movement. "
Savina phenomenon lies in the fact that it was the "queen of the Russian stage" without having "heroic" data and despite the unspoken theatrical laws that actress with roles-ingenue could not premerstvovat.
The first decade of the stage Alexandrinsky Savina (from mid-1870 to mid-1880) differed incredible fruitfulness of the actress and the number and quality of games played its role. Savina main contribution of this period was the opening of a new female type. Before Savina on the Russian stage, except for the famous in the 1830s. V.Asenkovoy, "were vaudeville Grasshopper international type were melodramatic innocence, but Russian girls, Russian women ... our scene did not know", - noted critic. Svoimyunym heroines Savina passed a huge charge of optimism, faith in yourself and in your love, not an alien caprice charming, graceful games, frivolity, under which suddenly disappeared and a sharp wit, and depth of feeling. The actress played in the plays V.A.Dyachenko, N.A.Potehina, I.V.Shpazhinskogo, V.Krylova, who became known for her participation.
School and teacher M.G.Savinoy. "Take samples of life", - he advised the great actor and educator M. Schepkin realist, "vlazit, so to speak in the skin of the character ...". Savina followed this advice: her principal teacher was the scene itself, although it is studied and an actress and teacher, student Shchepkina A.I.Shubert, which had a great influence on her. Schubert itself was great ingenue storing the living traditions of his teacher and his students passing. Gift acute observation in Savina gradually developed into a professional analytic great artist.
Results of the first decades of the imperial stage. The main outcome of the first decade of creativity Savina on the Alexandrinsky stage were three major roles for an actress of Russian classics: Vera (Month in the Country by Turgenev IS, 1879), Maria Antonovna (NV Gogol`s The Inspector General, 1881), Cooking (Savage Ostrovsky A. Solovyov and N., 1880).
The role of Vera was unsurpassed masterpiece Savinskoye lyricism. In this role, most clearly manifested dramatic gesture, not expressed in words, but in silence and special deep implication. Contemporaries saw live, infinitely pure and touching creature, girl, first fell in love with, and trusting timidly felt awakening previously unknown feelings. Genuine admiration game Savina expressed playwright, Turgenev. It gradually found itself actress in a drama, honing and developing their individual abilities, alien idealization and pathos.
Most organic Savin was in a comedy. Good luck in this genre was the role of Gogol`s Maria Antonovna in which the talents of Savina as Distinguishing actress. She performed a county lady was the creation of the air that combined the charm of youth with infinite limitations and exquisitely vulgar manners. A quarter-century actress reprized this role, constantly improving it.
The savage Vare Savina portrayed the character of extraordinary force, a foreign nonchalance that hides an original mind, restlessness and drama.
Savin and St. Petersburg Imperial Alexandrinsky Theatre. Skill Savina has been inextricably linked with the aesthetics of the theater, where she served for forty years, repeatedly saying, "The scene - my life." Alexandrinsky Theatre are always wary of ardent impulses of the soul, elevating deception, preaching and confession on the stage. "Petersburg did not believe in romance," - wrote the actor Yu.M.Yurev Petersburg, played in classical tragedy and the former kind of exception to the rule. In contrast to the Maly Theatre in St. Petersburg actors not thought themselves masters of doom. His vocation they understood easier - not to lecture and educate, and entertain, prompting the "good feelings" in the hearts of the audience through a game shop. The theme of social protest was alien to the theater. Northern Capital, court and Europeanized, was much less democratic than Moscow. Her stage is not so raging passions, how to create "types." Passion for the game, to play-acting prevailed over everything. It is in this area Savina was not equal. Clever skill, talent analytics, accurate and strict selection of means of expression, aesthetic deliberation: "nedoigrat better than to beat" - these qualities characterize Savina, which is in the prime of his creativity. She was a stranger to naturalism Strepetova PA, as well as foreign art confession associated with the work Komissarzhevskaya. Savina belongs to the saying: "If all the actors played on inspiration and experienced their roles, the world would be filled with homes for the mentally ill." Savinskaya game differed clearly verified, technique, but by no means coldness.
Ostrovsky and "power of darkness" Leo Tolstoy in Savina work. Evolution rapidly grown actress skill can be clearly traced back to her roles in plays by Ostrovsky. After a successful debut in the role of a girl from Nadi plays pupil, as well as an outstanding success Savina starring Wari and Polyxena (Truth is good, but happiness is better), Ostrovsky gives her many starring roles. However, neither Larissa (Dowry, 1878), nor Sasha Negin (Talents and Admirers, 1882), nor Katerina (Rain, 1888) Savina failed. These roles are much better played Yermolova, P.A.Strepetova, Komissarzhevskaya. Savina perfectly played the role of Julia Tuginoy (The Final Sacrifice) and continued to play it for more than 30 years. In her performance Julia was noble intelligent girl, defenseless against vulgarity and deception. In this role, he traced Savinskiy kind of "quiet" drama. In the 1890s, enriched by this experience, the actress played with great understanding and depth of many roles Ostrovsky, including previously neudavavshiesya or fundamentally rejected. It Eulalia (The Slave), Paracha (Warm Heart), Elena (Marriage Belugina), Vera Filippovna (The heart is not stone), Ludmila (Late Love) and Distinguishing - Cleopatra Mamaev (Enough Stupidity in Every Wise Man), and Matrona Kuroslepova ( Warm heart).
In this series, and it is one of the best roles Savina - Akulina of Leo Tolstoy`s Power of Darkness, which for the right performance on the stage of the Imperial Theatre actress struggled for more than seven years. In the role of Akulina (1895) demonstrated the wonders Savina internal and external transformation. The very image of Akulina Savina considered a landmark in his work: "Until now, I had two roles that I had the right to consider their creations: Maria Antonovna in the Inspector General, Vera per month in the village, and now a third - Akulina authorities in darkness. Names of Gogol, Turgenev, Tolstoy`s great and I`m happy to be able to personalize their types. These three roles enough for my whole career, and they serve as a shield to me. " These actresses words are perceived as a response to the ever handed out in her address accusations of promiscuity creative, often leads to emptiness and superficiality Savinskoye repertoire, sometimes overtly entertaining. Her repertoire is really hundreds of roles in plays one-day. And only ten - in the classics and the works of great contemporary authors.
Turgenev, Chekhov, Dostoevsky. Closest to Savina remained Turgenev. She has starred in all his plays: Maria (Bach), Masha (Evening in Sorrento), Daria Ivanovna (Provincial), Lisa Kalitina in staging the Noble nest. But the real success was the role of Natalia Petrovna (A Month in the village), played in the drama of late 1903. Love her character actress revealed very discreetly and in Turgenev poetic. In this role, we have merged with the deep psychology "lace", "filigree" technique actresses and the most sensitive contemporaries noticed some similarities with the dramatic Savina stylistic manner of the actors of the Moscow Art Theatre.
From Chekhov Savina repertoire played Sarah from Ivanov (1897), and Arkadina Ranevskaya (The Seagull and The Cherry Orchard). Only the role of Sarah turned out successful, but Arkadin and Ranevskaya Savina steel bushing, probably because of the aesthetic novelty of these plays, alien style Alexandrinsky Theatre.
Genuine interest in the work of the actress LN Tolstoy, Dostoevsky in an attempt to put their creative thinking. Anna Dmitrievna Karenina (The Living Corpse, 1911) was played a few one-sided. Nastasia (The Idiot, 1899) was still marked by a positive, though not exactly her role was.
"Prosecutor of their roles." Savina has created an amazing variety of images at the same time for the actress has been the most important condition for the internal transformation, rather than outward histrionics. The concept of "make-up of the soul" introduced A.Kugelem critic, referred to it, the St. Petersburg "the queen of the scene." Other qualities of creativity Savina - analytical mind and the courage of the artist, and the courage, based on subtle calculation. Creative Savina experiments, for example, it Akulina always been thought. It was finely conceived and purely Savinskiy "prosecutor" approach to modern heroine, a woman calculation and posture, selfish passions and fracture. The Savina performance on stage was re-launched is not a character, and type. In 1880-1890 she played in a series of contemporary plays: Olga Rantseva (Chad B.M.Markevich life), Elena Protic (M.I.Chaykovsky Symphony), Nina Volintsev (A.I.Sumbatov Ugine-chains), Tatyana Repin ( Suvorin AV Tatyana Repina). Perfectly owning art concise, complete specifications, Savina reveals the essence of his heroines severe and sober, completely abandoning their idealization. The actress is not deprived of charm by images, but it was the attraction of vice, cold brilliance. Savina is credited with great vitality and truthfulness in creating the type of society woman who does not love the right, but the calculation is not suffering, but capricious breakdown shown with ruthless severity. On one of these characters, Tatyana Repina, Yermolova played in sublime colors and touching sympathy for the first time in awakening heroine of love, Savin, in spite of the author`s intention, expressed his thoughts: "Tatyana Repina, in my opinion, not opyat-taki sublime figure, a character type. This is truly a child of the actor`s bohemia. All her life - ostentatious, which is the main content of this role. Moreover, she dies, so to speak, for show. "
The role of the Savina in the Russian theatrical school. In 1899 he toured Savina in Berlin and Prague. In those years the theater was truly caught Petersburg acutely contemporary lyrical art Komissarzhevskaya young, won the hearts of the audience in those roles, which have not brought success Savina. In this situation, Savina take bold, but deeply thought-out attempt to attract attention to the former, revealing Europe Russian theatrical school. A particularly strong impression on the European audience made it the play of Marguerite Dumas The Lady of the Camellias, in which the performance of Savina put on a par with the famous art and E.Duze S.Bernar. With touring Savina returned victorious. "In view of the specific services rendered by her Russian performing arts," Savina granted the title of "Honored Artist of the Imperial Theatres." Personal triumph actress coincided with the triumph of Russian school of acting.
Savin was a talented representative of realistic art of his time. It is no accident Stanislavsky included her name in the list of great actors who influenced him and serve him a sample.
Savina and engaged in social activities. Most of the activity is manifested in the creation of the Russian Theatrical Society, working first secretary and then chairman of the PTO Board. In 1896 he organized the "Shelter for the elderly stage actors", which later received its name. About the years of his childhood and youth theater actress wrote memories of sorrows and wanderings (L., 1983).