Date of Birth: 09/18/1882
Creativity Jacques Maritain (18.11.1882-29.04.1973), one of the most famous philosophers of the XX century., Still little known Ukrainian reader. His membership in the philosophical current neo-Thomism - the official doctrine of the Catholic Church - in Soviet times makes it impossible to transfer any of his works, nor any serious study of his work. Only since the late 80s. we can say the beginning of the development of the French philosopher monumental heritage (Paris full of works published in 13 volumes), summed up in the first series of translations of his proizvedeniy1.
As a philosopher, systematics, Maritain covered in his work all the major subject areas of philosophy: ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, philosophical anthropology, social and political philosophy.
This book "Man and State" is based on six lectures given by Maritain in December 1949 as part of the course "Analysis of the political institutions of the United States", organized by the Charles R. Walgreen. Like a number of other works, "American" period, it was written in English (first edition 1951) and only later translated his secretary nafrantsuzsky. In fact, the book presents a complete system of social and political philosophy, Maritain, most of the elements which have been considered in his previous works: "Primacy of the spiritual" (Primaute du spirituel, 1927), "Integral Humanism" (L `humanisme integral, 1934)," Human and the common good "(the Person and the common Good, 1947).
"The man and the state," however, is not only a theoretical treatise, but also "practical manifesto". Maritain offers "concrete historical ideal" for the "new democracy". Inspired by the principles of Thomism, he sought to apply them in the context of the cultural and political situation after the Second World War. Fifty years later, some of the ideas Maritain (for example, the idea of ??"world government", which shall consist of the "most wise and highly moral representatives of each of the nations") may seem a bit naive. Overall, however, the depth of analysis and the pathos of humanism Maritain never changed.
Socio-philosophical doctrine Maritain inherits a set of concepts and concepts (in addition to the backbone for him Thomistic tradition with its more Aristotelian components), starting with the "State" Plato, the ideas of the Enlightenment and ending explorations of the Chicago school of sociology. The direct influence on him Bergson, E. Mounier, Berdyaev. His book "The Man and the State" Maritain begins with the analysis of the relationship - often conflicting - between the categories in which he seeks to clothe the "complex fluidity of social reality." These categories - "nation", "political society", "State", "people". The phases of historical development appear in a dialectical relationship - something normal, something distorted - between "community" (social fairy nomen wild-type) and "society" (the phenomenon of contract-type organization). Regulatory role of "society", according to the philosopher, is to encourage the natural development of "community" - and with minimal intrusion and control, - contributing the maximum expression of pluralism, personal freedom and initiative. This constant interaction "community" and "society" implies that the "sovereignty" can only be a relative or correlative, but not absolute - whether in the public or the autonomous power of the state.
These Basic principle of the policy are specified (by the analysis of contemporary society the author) in the chapters dealing with the authorities, the relation of ends and means, human rights, democratic rights of the Church and the State, the political unification of the world. The diversity of cultures, ideologies and religions, not to mention the interests and claims, which are found in the settlement of international problems, encourages Maritain distinguish between pragmatic rule actions that can be taken by practical reason in a fluid and changing world, and doctrinal and theoretical justification of these rules, differences in the interpretation of which does not eliminate the possibility of a consensus at the level of specific actions.
Ultimately, adjusted at the highest spiritual level, the relationship between individuals and groups are only able to religion and the Church, according to Maritain. Way out of the crisis of contemporary era saw Maritain in a statement "theocentric humanism", "personalist democracy," the Christianization of all areas of spiritual culture and the ecumenical rapprochement of religions. Socio-cultural ideal of Maritain received the official recognition of the Catholic Church after the Vatican Council II (1962-1965).