Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Condorcet
Date of Birth: 09/17/1743
Place of birth: Ribmon
Condorcet, JEAN MARIE ANTOINE NICOLAS (Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de) (1743-1794), French mathematician, economist, writer and philosopher of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. Born September 17, 1743 in Ribmone (France). An aristocrat by birth, Condorcet refused military and ecclesiastical career and became a scientist. His thesis on integral calculus presented in 16 years (experience of integral calculus, Du calcul intgral, 1765), was highly appreciated D`Alamberom. After the publication of Essays analysis (Essays d`Analyse, 1768) he was admitted to the Academy of Sciences, and in 1777 elected its permanent secretary. He wrote biographies of famous scientists of the 17th century. Condorcet and his contemporaries - Praise academics (Eloges des acadmiciens ... morts depuis 1666 jusqu`en 1699, 1773). In 1782 Condorcet was elected to the French Academy. He participated in the famous Encyclopedia.
Under the influence of close friends, Voltaire and Turgot, the biography he wrote (Life of Turgot, Vie de M. Turgo, 1786; Life of Voltaire, Vie de Voltaire, 1789), Condorcet became interested in the social sciences. His ability as an economist were recognized when, after the triumph of the Physiocrats, Turgot was appointed Minister of Finance, and Condorcet - Chief Inspector of the Mint. In 1785 he published a work experience of the application of analysis to the problem of the probability of making a majority vote (Essai sur l`application de l`analyse la probabilit des dcisions rendues la pluralit des voix). The second revised and significantly expanded edition appeared in 1805 under the title Elements of probability calculus and its application to gambling, lottery and human judgment (Elements du calcul des probabilits et son application aux jeux de hasard, la loterie et aux jugements des hommes).
In 1791 Condorcet was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Paris and soon became its secretary. He took part in the reform of the education system, writing a number of declarations and options Girondist constitution. He voted against a death sentence to Louis XVI. Charged with conspiracy and sentenced to death by the Jacobins, their opponents in the Convention, Condorcet hiding in a secret hideout in Paris in 1793. For the nine months he was able to write a great work Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the human mind (Esquisse d`un tableau historique des progrs de l `esprit humain, 1795), about the goodness and greatness of human nature and infinite perfection and the progress of mankind, which has had a profound influence on Saint-Simon and Comte. After the arrest of 27 March 1794 he was placed in a tavern in Bourg-la-Reine, where he died (apparently from exhaustion or poison), 29 March 1794. The Convention, which condemned Condorcet, later ruled that the publication of his latest work.