Date of Birth: 11/22/1515
Citizenship: United Kingdom
Mary was the eldest daughter of Claude Lorraine, Duc de Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon. In 1534, Maria de Guise was married to Louis d`Orleans, duc de Longueville, a close relative of the King of France. However, three years later the first wife Mary died. Simultaneously dead first wife of the king of Scotland the V Jacob, and King, true union with France, began to look for a new bride of the French aristocracy. May 18, 1538 in the Cathedral of Notre Dame the wedding of Mary and King of Scotland. Soon, the young queen arrived at her new home, leaving her son in France from his first marriage.
At Mary of Guise and James V had three children, but the two eldest sons died in infancy, before the age of one year. Last child, daughter Maria, at the time of his father`s death December 14, 1542 marked only 6 days old. Nevertheless, she was proclaimed Queen of Scotland under the name of Mary Stuart.
The struggle for power
For the administration of the country during the minority of Queen Mary Stuart was formed regency council headed by James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran. Regent has become a policy focus on England, negotiations began on marriage of Mary Stuart and her son King Henry VIII of, actively encouraged the spread of Protestantism Anglican persuasion. At the same time, the pro-French party formed around Cardinal Beaton, to which, of course, joined Mary of Guise.
At the end of 1543, exasperated by the exorbitant demands of Henry VIII of, regent deposed Anglophile barons and broke an alliance with England. This provoked the invasion of the British Army, in front of which the government was powerless. As a result, in the summer of 1544 Arran has been temporarily removed from power, and his place was taken by Mary of Guise, who managed to unite rather diverse group: from ardent supporters focus on France led by Cardinal Beaton, to moderate Anglophile, headed by Count Angus. the new government`s policy has been cautious not following the lead of Henry VIII, Mary nevertheless in no hurry and execute the wishes of France. The desire to compromise, however, led to a rapid expansion in Scotland (especially in the cities, and Kyle Fife) Protestantism.
Between Fr. antsiey and England
May 29, 1546 in his castle radical Protestants were killed by Cardinal Beaton, which caused a serious political crisis: it was destroyed, but many church lands seized by the killer took St Andrews, holding hostages there, on a wave of performances Protestants, a number of Catholic churches. The government, which again led Earl of Arran, could not cope with the situation and was forced to seek help from France. July 31, 1547 the French Expeditionary Corps knocked Protestants from St. Andrews and arrested participants in the rebellion. In response to Scotland invaded by British troops of the Duke of Somerset, who in September 1547 defeated the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie. British garrisons were stationed in the most important fortresses of the eastern part of the country.
The impossibility of uniting Catholic and Protestant forces of the country has forced Mary of Guise and Earl of Arran again ask for help from France. The situation was favorable: in 1547 in the reign of the French King Henry II of, tuned to the resumption of the war with England for the return of Boulogne and Calais, the French court the leading position occupied by representatives of the family of Guise, Mary of Guise brothers. July 7, 1548 signed an agreement on the marriage of Queen Mary Stuart and the eldest son of Henry II, the Dauphin Francis, and soon five-year Queen was sent to France. In Scotland were put French troops who drove the British out of most of the fortresses, and in the Bois de world March 24, 1550, ended the Anglo-French war, British troops left Scotland.
In 1550, Mary of Guise traveled to France, during which she was able to enlist the French subsidies and pensions for oscillating Scottish barons. Returning to Scotland in 1551 took advantage of the fall of the queen`s popularity graph of Arran and in April 1554 made his removal from the post of regent of the country. Scotland became the sole ruler Mary of Guise.
Regent of Scotland
Appeasement and its failure
Mary of Guise Policy in 1554-1560 gg. largely determined by the interests of France. With regard to the Protestant queen was originally set peacefully: without being fanatical Catholic, Maria did not create obstacles to the action of Protestant preachers. She even tried to use them against England, where in 1553 established an ultra-Catholic Queen Mary Tudor mode. On the side of the Reformed Church passed a number of major Scottish magnates (Earl of Argyll, Lord Lorne, Earl of Morton, and others). Mary of Guise has sought to attract the widest possible layers - citizens, moderate Anglophile, Protestants, giving them various privileges and giving pensions.
However, this policy is largely negates the French domination in Scotland: the French troops were stationed in the Scottish castles, advisers from France occupied important positions in the royal administration. The financial system of the country could not meet the increasing needs of the state apparatus, tax administration attempts have caused a sharp resistance of all walks of life, and set the army to war with Britain failed. Mary was forced to increasingly rely on the French grants and financial aid. For this she had to make considerable concessions: according to the secret annexes to the marriage contract in 1558 between Mary Stuart and Francis Valois Queen of Scotland passed to the French king in the absence of children from this marriage, which created a threat to the conversion of Scotland in one of the provinces of the kingdom of France.
Last event appeasement Mary of Guise - convening in March 1559 Cathedral Church of Scotland, designed to reform the religious orders. However, its half-hearted solutions could satisfy neither Catholics nor Protestants.
The situation changed at the end of 1558 .: ascended to the throne of England, Queen Elizabeth I, once again turned to the path of Protestantism. Mary Stuart, believing Elizabeth, according to church canons, the illegitimate daughter of Henry VIII of, has announced its claims to the throne of England. France, where the king was the husband of Mary Stuart Francois II, the Queen was ready to support the claim.
The Protestant Revolution
At the beginning of 1559, he arrived in Scotland, John Knox, the fiery Protestant preacher, advocate of decisive action against the Catholic Church, as well as outspoken opponent of the so-called female rule. Under the influence of his sermons in Perth 11 May uprising broke Protestants. The rebels destroyed Catholic shrines, ruined monasteries and abbeys. On their side switched Earl of Argyll and several other aristocrats. Protestant troops moved south and took Edinburgh. Mary of Guise was forced to retreat, but she was able to gain a foothold in Leyte, where the French reinforcements arrived soon. Protestants, in turn, appealed to England. Arran also joined the revolt and announced the displacement of Mary from the post of regent of the country. Nevertheless, the French troops went on the offensive and soon drove the Protestants from Edinburgh. In response to Arran and the Protestant party leaders concluded February 27, 1560 agreement with Britain, providing entry of British troops on the territory of the country.
At the end of March 1560 to Scotland to take British troops. For the first time in history they were greeted as liberators of the country: religious community is now meant more than national differences. The British laid siege to Mary of Guise and the French Army in Leyte. The situation is complicated by the events in France Guise party was for a time suspended from the management, which meant the impossibility of further military assistance to the queen. France is now inclined to reconciliation with England. July 6, 1560 between the British and French ambassadors signed the Treaty of Edinburgh, and both countries have pledged to withdraw its troops from Scotland. Shortly before signing Mary of Guise died. It is believed that she was poisoned on the orders of Elizabeth of England, but this view is not historically confirmed.
The death of Mary of Guise and the Treaty of Edinburgh became pivotal for the development of political and religious of Scotland: the traditional focus on France lost its meaning in the place three hundred years the Anglo-Scottish wars came a period of peace and rapprochement between the two states of British, Scottish Protestantism triumphed.
Marriage and children
(1534), Louis II, Duke of Longueville
Francois III (1535-1551), Duke de Longueville (c 1537)
(1538) James V, King of Scotland
Mary I Stuart (1542-1587), Queen of Scots (1542-1567)
Apparently, after the death of James the V, Mary of Guise was having an affair with Cardinal Beaton and the Earl of Bothwell.