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Marian Anderson

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American contralto against racial intolerance

His outstanding talent of the singer Marian Anderson helped achieve impressive results. Perhaps she would have achieved greater success, did not prevent her own skin color - or, rather, intolerance of blacks in her home country. Well received abroad ,Anderson yet returned home - and eventually managed to win the respect of the allotted.

Marian was born in Philadelphia (Philadelphia), in a family of merchant John Berkeley Anderson (John Berkley Anderson) and his wife, Annie DeLisle Rucker (Annie Delilah Rucker). Mother Marian once received no special education; Consequently,she could not teach in Philadelphia, according to the law - which, incidentally, applies only to the black population. Marian was the eldest of three girls ; her sister, Alice and Ethel, later also became a singer. The girl`s parents were staunch Christians and took an active part in local church life ;Aunt Marian`s mother was not inferior - and that she had to help her to make the first steps towards a future career. Noting the presence of niece exceptional vocal talent, a woman invited her to participate in the work of the church choir. Here Marian acted either alone or in duets - often with his aunt. In 6 years, Anderson first began to make their singing.

After high school, Anderson filed a request to the Philadelphia Academy of Music - where, alas, she was denied because of the color. Not wishing to give up, Marian began to study privately at Bogetti Giuseppe (Giuseppe Boghetti) Refsnayder and Agnes (Agnes Reifsnyder).

In 1925-om Anderson was waiting for her first breakthrough - a woman won the competition of the New York Philharmonic. On the Rights of the winner Mrian won the right to play with the orchestra ; performance was extremely successful, having won the singer instant popularity. Over the next years, Marian actively performed on American soil ; Alas,Racial prejudice is strongly hindered its success. In 1928th the first time Anderson sang at Carnegie Hall.

Not really succeeded in the United States, Anderson went to Europe - where it took a very, very warm. In the early 30`s Marian toured extensively in Europe, enjoying the lack of racial intolerance of the American scale. In the summer of 1930Anderson first met in the Nordic countries (Scandinavia) Finnish pianist Vehanen Bones (Kosti Vehanen) - stavshegvposledstvii her regular accompanist and vocal coach. In addition, Marian met and made friends with Jean Sibelius (Jean Sibelius).

Do not forgot to Anderson about America - in the late 30`s she was giving about 70 concerts a year. Despite its popularity, win racial intolerance fully Marian still could not - she denied rooms in several hotels and not allowed to go to some restaurants. Often Marian shelter gave himself Albert Einstein (Albert Einstein) - formerly a staunch opponent of any racial discrimination.

In 1939-th Marian Anderson was refused permission to organize a concert for a mixed audience in the Constitutional Zae DAR. In Washington, while still bloomed racial segregation ; black visitors would have to sit exclusively on the rear seats, and put under the law of separate toilets for ` raznokozhih` was not in the building.Noise is a decision made a lot of ; especially got the organization ` Daughters of the American Revolyutsii` - Failure, in fact, gave. From the organization it took a few thousand members, and counting the very First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (Eleanor Roosevelt); that, among other things, broke angry letters ,which categorically refused to accept the behavior of the organization. In the end, it was proposed an alternative solution - President Roosevelt ,isolnitelny Assoatsiatsii Secretary of the National Advancement of Colored Walter White (Walter White) and manager Marian Yurok Sol (Sol Hurok) knocked permission to hold a concert in the open air on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. Passed this is in many ways a landmark concert on April 9 ; personally attended by about 75,000 people at the event ,and on national radio speech Marian heard by millions.

During the Second World War and the Korean Anderson actively promoted the troops - in hospitals and military bases. In 1943 she finally had a chance to speak in the Constitutional Hall - and invited her all the same ` Docheri` that denied her ranshe. July 17, 1943-of Anderson was married to a friend of his youth, architect Fischer Orpheus (Orpheus H. Fisher). After much effort the couple bought a piece of land, where Fisher has built quite an extensive estate with lots of individual structures (like a special studio for vocal training wife) . Where Anderson lived for almost 50 years.

January 7, 1955-of Marian became the first black singer, will perform at New York`s Metropolitan Opera. Executed batch Ulrika Andersson (Ulrica) in ` Ball - maskarad` (` Un ballo in maschera`) Giuseppe Verdi (`Giuseppe Verdi`). More in this theater Anderson did not appear even once, but it is still included as a permanent member of the opera company.

in 1956 toth saw the light of the autobiographical work of Marian, `My Lord, What a Morning`; the book became a bestseller.

In 1965. Anderson completely left the singing ; however, appear in public woman has not ceased. During his many musical merits and achievements Marian received a number of prestigious prizes and awards ;among them were the National Medal of Arts, the Congressional Gold Medal and Prize ` Gremmi`. In 1980 the Treasury issued a gold medal with her image; in the 1984th Marian became the first recipient of the Eleanor Roosevelt Award `Human Rights Award`. It is also known that Anderson pchetnuyu received his doctorate at Howard University ,Temple University and Smith College.

In 1986, Anderson`s husband died. Marian herself continued to live in the family residence until 1992. In March 1993, she suffered a stroke, and April 8, 1993, died of heart failure ; at the time of death was 96 years, Marian. The residence was later sold it ; however,error status: 400

Place of birth : San Francisco, California, USA

Citizenship : United States

The most famous lingerie brand in the world

`Victoria`s Secret` - the largest US chain selling lingerie. In 2012, the company`s sales exceeded 6.12 billion dollars. The company sells women`s underwear, clothing ,accessories and beauty products through catalogs (sending out 375 million catalogs per year), Internet - shop and flagship stores. Company headquarters are located in Columbus, Ohio (Columbus, Ohio).

The company was founded June 12, 1977 in San Francisco, California (San Francisco, California),a graduate of Tufts University and Stanford Raymond Roy (Roy Raymond) and his wife Gay (Gaye Raymond). During the eight years before Raymond went to the store to buy his wife a beautiful set of clothes and totally confused there. He was surrounded by stands with terry bathrobes and ugly nylon nightie ,and none of the sellers did not rush to help the confused customer.

In the `70s and` 80s, most American women content with simple, functional underwear and beautiful lingerie was reserved for special occasions such as a honeymoon. Provocative lace panties and push- ups in general occupies a special niche, somewhere in the minds of buyerssomething close to a feather boa and outfits for strippers. Raymond for a long time studying the American underwear market and how the situation was in other countries, and then took 40 000 dollars from their parents and took the same amount in the bank, and that was the beginning of `Victoria`s Secret` - with the money he opened the first store calculated on whatthat men feel comfortable in the female realm.

In the first year of the new enterprise has brought half a million - enough to increase the number of stores and organize the sale of catalogs - by 1982 sale catalogs brought the company 55 % of income - and it was already 3.85 million per year. However, despite the high profits ,reverse the stereotype Raymond failed, and his company is still considered one of the niche players in the market, whose product is more suitable for burlesque than everyday wardrobe of ordinary women. In addition, the rate of male audience in the world, which became more and more self- employed women was clearly unprofitable. Things were getting worse, and `Victoria`s Secret` straight path heading for bankruptcy.

The situation changed in 1982, when Raymond sold `Victoria`s Secret` (6 stores and trade catalogs) Leksli Wexner (Leslie Wexner) of ` Limited Stores Inc.`, just a million dollars. It was a Wexner turned moribund company into a prosperous company with a turnover of a billion and a worldwide reputation. The first thing a businessman from Ohio got rid of the incorrect, in his opinion, ideology - `Victoria`s Secret` selling lingerie, hence, it was necessary to count on the female audience. Linen was not less beautiful or sexy,but the marketing has changed - now buyers have promised sensual European luxury combined with good taste and impeccable style. The trick worked - five years from the date of purchase 6 shops transformed into 346 luxury boutiques with perfectly trained staff, in which each customer has felt like a queen. However, the final `Victoria`s Secret` confirmed its status of high quality underwear manufacturer only with the beginning of the new century, when the power company came a woman - it `s just managed to get rid of the taste in the Playboy brand directories.At the same time changed its appearance and shops of the company - in its interior there is nothing left from the brothel Victorian aptly joked detractors.

By 2006, the number of stores has exceeded a thousand, and lingerie has evolved from a theme, which in polite society do not speak in a completely ordinary accessory.Since 1995, the company holds its Victoria`s Secret Fashion Show, which aired on television, and that is inextricably linked such a thing as angels `Victoria`s Secret` - famous models showing at shows underwear company. They usually come with wings behind the back, hence the name. In other words,are officials of the brand. Among current and former ` angelov` - Tyra Banks (Tyra Banks), Laetitia Casta (Laetitia Casta), Claudia Schiffer (Claudia Schiffer), Adriana Lima (Adriana Lima), and many others. there are many beautiful women who wanted to act as honorary ` angela` at Victoria`s Secret Fashion Show among Hollywood celebrities ,but the company always refuses them. The official reason - the lack of growth, even in high heels.

And yet, that is the name of the company that is behind Victoria, and what a secret she keeps ? One version has it that the founders of the company had in mind the British Queen Victoria, who for so long rule of his country ,that stayed in the memory of the majority only as an overweight middle-aged woman in eternal mourning. However, once she was blossoming young woman, and gave birth to her beloved husband as much as nine children. How is it caused him such an enduring desire of what happened behind the doors of their bedrooms - this is the secret of Victoria.

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