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Marcus Junius Brutus

Picture of Marcus Junius Brutus

Citizenship: Italy

Background

Brutus was the son of Marcus Junius Brutus and Cato Uticheskogo half-sister, Servilia. Mistakenly considered to be a descendant of Lucius Junius Brutus expelled the last king of Rome - Tarquinius Superbus. In fact, the First Consul Brutus was a patrician, and Caesar`s assassin belonged to a plebeian family, predpolozhtelno comes from some of the freedmen (just as the plebeian gens Claudia comes from a freedman-Claudian patricians). Brutus was adopted by his mother`s brother, Quintus Servilius Caepio, and was therefore his name. The second time, he was married to Portia, daughter of Cato Uticheskogo.

Political activity

In 59 BC. e. Brutus was falsely accused in the device conspiracy against Pompey, Caesar, but, at that time became the lover of the mother of Brutus, made sure that the charges were dropped. Brutus was the first opponent of Pompey, slew his father in Gaul, but then sided with him when Pompey made the defense case Optimates (aristocratic faction) in the Civil War. However, after Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus (48 BC. E.), Brutus moved to the side of Caesar, who received him amicably and gave him in 46 BC. e. the management of Cisalpine Gaul. In 44 BC. e. Brutus was the praetor, after which he was supposed to get in control of Macedonia and even become consul.

The murder of Caesar

Yet Brutus became the head of the conspiracy against Caesar. He received from different sides anonymous claims, reminding him of the descent from Brutus, the liberator of Rome by the imperial power, and encourages him to break with Caesar. Finally, Gaius Cassius Longinus drew him to his side. Example Brutus then prompted many noble Romans to join the conspiracy against Caesar.

But when Caesar was assassinated March 15, 44 BC. e., Brutus and the conspirators failed to win over the people themselves. Antony, who at the same time killing Caesar prevented himself Brutus, managed by people reading Caesar`s will, which provides people with a very significant amount, excite the crowd rage and thirst for revenge of his assassins.

fighting against the triumvirs and death

Then Brutus went to Athens and seized Macedonia. Hortensius, ruled until Macedonia, joined him. Owning the entire Greece and Macedonia, Brutus became the head of a strong army, which broke in 43 BC. e. Caius Antonius, the brother of the triumvir, and took him prisoner. He then moved to Asia and joined the victorious Cassius, with whom he has received from the Senate, the supreme power over all the provinces of the East.

In Rome, however, soon triumphed triumvirs Mark Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. All the conspirators were convicted against Brutus and Cassius were kitted troops. Recently moved back to Europe to fight back Triumvirs. They crossed the Dardanelles and pulled his army, 17 legions and 17,000 cavalry, in the plains of Philippi in Macedonia, where the triumvirs Antony and Octavian clashed with them in the autumn of 42 BC. e .. In the first battle, which led Octavian, Brutus took over his troops; but Cassius was defeated by Antony, and committed suicide. After about 20 days, Brutus had to the requirements of the army to second battle, in which both suffered a complete defeat. With a few friends, he managed to escape death. Seeing, however, that his case was lost irrevocably, he threw himself on his sword ..

Works

only a few fragments have survived From the speeches of Brutus; on the contrary, his correspondence with Cicero preserved whole and of two volumes. The authenticity of the individual letters, however, disputed, and it Tenstolem (Cambrian, Lond 1741 and 1744..), Tsumptom (Berlin, 1845) and Meyer (Shtuttg 1881.); defenders of the authenticity of them were: Midlton (London, 1743), German (G