Ludwig Wittgenstein

Picture of Ludwig Wittgenstein

Date of Birth: 04/26/1889

Age: 62

Place of birth: Vienna

Citizenship: Austria


Born in Vienna on April 26, 1889. After several years of study in Berlin, trained at the University of Manchester (1908), engaged in the design and development of technical devices. In 1911 Wittgenstein began to work intensively on the problems of logic in the University of Cambridge with Bertrand Russell. One of the first of his results - the detection of the tautological nature of logical truths. In 1914, with the beginning of World War I, Wittgenstein enlisted in the Austrian army. At the front, he continued to think about the logical and philosophical problems; In 1918 work was completed on a book published under the title Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung, 1921; Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 1922).

A treatise in the world is considered an original and significant work. According to one of the main ideas of this work, the world substance consists of "simple objects" which, engaging in various combinations with each other define facts. "Elementary judgments" consist of "names", each of which represents a simple object. The combination of name denotes or "shows" some possible combination of relevant objects, in other words - a possible fact. Picture, picture possible of the fact there is a "thought". All conceivable possible; denial conceivable also conceivable and possible. Since some possible combination of names shows some possible combination of objects, the logical form of the image and the logical form of reality are identical to each other.

Thinking is available to sensory perception, as expressed in linguistic propositions. Writing down all true elementary propositions, we have been able to fully describe the world. Although the reality of the whole can be represent in judgment, no judgment can not represent the general that he should be with the reality that the judgment could represent the reality, namely, the logical form of the image and the reality. The logical form can not be described in the judgment, it shows itself in every judgment. That general, that necessarily there in thought, language, and reality can not be said. Elementary propositions depict random state of the world that are logically independent of each other and have a possible alternative. Impossible and defies expression. In addition, it can not be said, are a matter of logic, ethics, aesthetics, religion and even philosophy.

After the war, Wittgenstein for ten years is not studied philosophy. For several years he taught at a provincial school in Lower Austria, and then worked as an assistant gardener in a convent. In 1929, unexpectedly he returned to Cambridge and resumed his philosophical investigations. In 1939 Wittgenstein received the chair of philosophy at the University of Cambridge, which he left in 1947. He continued his research until his death in Cambridge April 29, 1951.

After 1929 Wittgenstein wrote a lot. His main work of this period are the Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen; Philosophical Investigations, published posthumously in 1953.). Currently, edited and published as other writings of Wittgenstein, among them - the foundations of mathematics Remarks (Bemerkungen ber die Grundlagen der Mathematik, 1956; Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, 1978), The Blue and Brown Books (The Blue and Brown Books, 1958), Philosophical notes (philosophische Bemerkungen, 1964; Philosophical Remarks, 1975), notes (Zettel, 1967) and Miscellaneous Items (Mixed Remarks, 1977). These books and his lectures and discussions in which he participated, had a profound influence on modern philosophy. Most of the Treatise fell under the blows of criticism, drawn by Wittgenstein, were discarded the concept of "simple objects", "name", "elementary propositions", "analysis" and thought as "image". Treatise assumptions that there is some kind of essence or nature, thinking, language and representation, is now regarded as a serious error Wittgenstein. There are many different forms of thinking, language and representation, and unjustified and unrealistic to assume that these forms embodied a kind of general nature.

Important is also the idea of ??"language as a game" (or "language games"), of a system of human activity, practice, in which words play a role. Thus, the "thinking" refers to a variety of activities and the forms that it takes. Therefore, we must abandon the assumption that the word "thinking" means the same thing in a variety of differing contexts. The same is true of other psychological concepts "repetition rule", "expectations", "perception", "implication", "Memories". The following excerpt from the Philosophical Investigations provides a good example of a "language game" and the style of thinking of Wittgenstein this period.

"182. Grammar "approach", "may" and "understanding." Tasks: 1) When it is said that the cylinder z approaches the hollow cylinder h? Whether only when inserted in the z h? 2) Sometimes we say that z in such and such a time ceased to approach h. What criteria are used in such cases to determine that this has happened at this time? 3) What is considered a criterion for change in weight at a certain time, if the body at this time does not lay in the balance? 4) Yesterday I knew the poem by heart; today I did not know. In what kind of cases it makes sense to ask: "When I stopped him know by heart" 5) Someone asks me: "Can you lift this weight? "I answer," Yes. " Then he said to me: "Raise!" - And I can not do that. In what kind of circumstances, my words: "Answering" Yes ", I could do it, and now I can not" - could be considered sufficient justification?

The criteria that we take to "come", "can", "understand", is not as simple as it might seem at first glance. In other words, the game with these words, their use in the language communication, carried out with their help, is much more difficult - and the role of these words in our language is different - what we tend to think. (It is necessary to understand the role to allow philosophical paradoxes.) "

Wittgenstein says that the philosophy of "permanent danger has much to understand the meaning of the expression, contemplating the very expression ... As if the meaning - it is the breath that word brings to each of its use." tests are conducted for many of the terms in his writings, which put philosophers confuse such as "knowledge", "authenticity" and "justification". Carefully describe methods and ways of working, in which there are these terms found in everyday life. We see that it is the knowledge, credibility, an excuse in these practical situations, and that they mean something else when circumstances change. The language should be studied when it works, but not when he was "resting."