Date of Birth: 07/03/1899
Place of birth: Toast
Citizenship: United Kingdom
The founder of the Paralympic Games
Ludwig Guttmann was born in Tostes, Upper Silesia, Germany (Tost, Upper Silesia, Germany); when he was three, his family moved to the city Kenigskhyutte (Konigshutte). In 1917 Ludwig took a job at a local hospital; it was there that he first met the man who had undergone spinal injury - young miner. Unfortunately, the rescue of miner Ludwig failed - five months later he died from sepsis.
In April 1918, Guttman began to study medicine at the University of Breslau (University of Breslau); in the spring of 1919 he perebrlasya at Freiburg University (University of Freiburg). In 1924, Ludwig received his doctorate.
He continued to work in the specialty Ludwig at the Jewish Hospital (Jewish Hospital) Breslau (Breslau). By 1930, he had served as the hospital director. Unfortunately, the situation in the country at that time was not favorable to the Jews openly; after a series of violent attacks on Jews and the tragic events of Kristallnacht `nochi` November 9, 1938 th Guttman ordered to treat all patients, regardless of nationality. A day later, his order he had to explain to the representatives of the Gestapo; it is known that at least 60 out of 64 of his patients timely treatment in the hospital literally saved - from arrest and subsequent referral to the concentration camps.
At the beginning of 1939 Guttman and his family were forced to flee the country - the struggle with the Jews came to a completely unacceptable level. March 14, 1939 th Ludwig and his family arrived in Oxford (Oxford, England); local group involved in supporting refugees, gave him money for the resettlement. Ludwig went on to study spinal cord injuries in the neurosurgical department of the hospital Radcliffe (Nuffield Department of Neurosurgery in the Radcliffe Infirmary). WWII Guttman held in the UK; already in 1945 he became a naturalized citizen of the empire.
Back in September 1943 the British authorities offered Guttmann set up a medical center at the national level at the hospital Stoke Mandeville (Stoke Mandeville); to engage in this center was familiar Ludwig spine problems. February 1, 1944 the first center was established; Guttman became its director - a position he held until 1946. It is known that Ludwig attached great importance to the sport as a therapy method; his work with the wounded military confirmed that sports help to restore both physical fitness and mental health. 28 July 1948-th - the day of the London Olympics (London Olympic Games) - Guttman has launched the first Stoke Mandeville Games for the Disabled.
By 1952 th in regular games at the Centre attended more than 130 foreign athletes. In such a large-scale project drew attention to the Olympic Games organizers and a number of charities around the world. At Stoke Mandeville Games 1956 Guttmann was awarded the cup `Sir Thomas Fearnley Cup` for his contribution to the Olympic movement.
In 1960, the International Stoke Mandeville Games were held concurrently with the next Olympics. Now these games formally considered the first Paralympic Games; should, however, be remembered that the term `Paralympic igry` itself was introduced by the International Olympic Committee only in 1984.
In 1961 Guttman founded the British sports association of persons with disabilities (British Sports Association for the Disabled).
Ludwig Guttmann died on March 18, 1980-th.