Date of Birth: 07/23/1926
Citizenship: Czech Republic
Born July 23, 1926 in Brumove (Wallachian Kloubuki) in a carpenter`s family. After graduating from high school, he studied at the School of the working youth enterprise "Dad" (the famous shoe factory Zlin). During the war, he continued to work for the company, "Dad," and at the same time raised the qualification in shoemaking School (1941-1946). In 1948 he joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and in 1950 graduated from the two-year course of the Higher Party School in Prague. He taught at a boarding school in the United plants Benesheve over Pluchnitsey. At this time, he published his first prose ( "Noisy building", "Axe").
After returning from service in the army he worked as an editor in the publishing house of political literature mouthpiece of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Rude Pravo, and later -. In the agricultural magazine "Talk rustic family" After the 1958 edition of the youth led the Czechoslovak Radio program "Microphone young" (later - "Mikroforum") and "Yesterday I was 15", he became a member of the Union of Czechoslovak Writers. In 1965 he joined the "Literary Gazette". His satires compared with feuilletons by Karel Capek. At the IV Congress of the Czechoslovak Writers` Union at the end of June 1967 he gave a speech in which demanded freedom of speech and the abolition of censorship. For this he was expelled from the party.
His famous Two Thousand Words Vaculik wrote at the request of the forces in the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, who supported the reformist Dubcek - group of academics led by Wichterle and member of the Politburo of Frantisek Kriegel. The manifesto was published June 27, 1968 in several Czechoslovak newspapers (Literary Gazette, Rural and newspaper Mlada fronta), literally the next day after the parliament overturned his law prior censorship in the press. Despite the presence in the manifesto "2000 words" direct appeal to the protection of the Dubcek government with arms in their hands, "he Vaculik today claims that his famous text was written under the influence of the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, and called for civil resistance without violence.
Invasion of the Warsaw Pact tanks into Czechoslovakia in 1968 Vaculik describes with humor: "August 21, 1968 I was with my family in my hometown of Broome, staying with a cousin also named Ludwik At six in the morning his wife opened the door to our room and said.: "Ludvik, Russian us occupied!" My brother got up, lit a cigarette and said. "What we do greet Slivovitsa drunk, grenades do not?" Then came the rangers, they say, need to hide me I say.. "What`s that for stupidity I`ll be here a hundred years hiding something? "
In times of normalization (since 1969) Vaculik was forbidden to print. In 1969-1971 he was published in a handwritten journal "Yonash" theater semaphore. His books were published in samizdat, as well as major Czech publishing houses abroad - Sixty-Eight Publishers in Toronto and Cologne-over-rynom "Index". His books of these years - "Crumbs" (1973), "The Czech Dream Book" (1981, most discussion of his book, an idea suggested by Jiri Kolar), "Favorite classmates" (1981).
In 1973 Vaculik was the organizer uncensored publishing "buttonhole", produce about four hundred books, and in 1977 - one of the leading human rights organization Charter 77.
The official ban on work Vaculik filmed in late 1989, after the Velvet Revolution. Vaculik - one of the few writers of the time, who was not involved in politics at that time. In November 1989, the organizers of political celebrations saving offered Vaculik tell what he wants to say, and after his refusal to do so - was not allowed on the podium, referring to the fact that conscious people will not let him speak, accusing it of cowardice.
After 1989 Vaculik wrote the book "How are you, kid" (1991 - about the relationship between father and son), "Nememuary" (1998 - about his life), "Farewell to the Virgin" (2003 - the divine drops) and "Improved song" ( 2006 - folk songs, improved Vaculik). It remains unreleased erotic prose "Old Bed" and "our daily bread". The right to decide to publish them or not after his death, his son handed writer. Today Vaculik working on the novel "The Hours Piano" (music of the teacher and her students).
For literary and civil merits in 1996 the writer was awarded the Order of Tomas Masaryk.
Today Vaculik live in Prague. He writes prose and leads column "last word" in the right-wing liberal newspaper Lidove noviny. "With the sensitivity inherent in only exceptional natures, - says Ivan Klima, - a brief, witty and interesting Vaculik identifies and calls on behalf of the causes of diseases, corrodes the soul and body of our society; in a brilliant literary style that is unparalleled since the times of Karel Capek, he has been fighting for a normal person and a decent, meaningful life. " So, in August 2008, 82-year-old Vaculik in one of the "last word" sharply spoke against the resolution obtaining permanent residence in the Czech Republic for citizens of Russia: "... the people who received such education and passed this selection, is dangerous in any situation. So I do not agree with the fact that these people have admitted to us. They come under the slogan of freedom, nothing about it is not knowing, bring their capital here, to catch on, and when there will be a lot of them, so they will demand autonomy. The brothers of the power will come to save them. As in Georgia. "
In the Russian language Vaculik hardly translated.