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Ludmila Wolkenstein

Picture of Ludmila Wolkenstein

Date of Birth: 09/18/1857

Age: 48

Place of birth: Kiev

Citizenship: Russia

Background

A year after graduating from high school Lyudmila Volkenshtein married Alexander Alexandrovich Volkenshtein, a young country doctor. In the summer of 1877 he was arrested for advocacy. This fact was a turning point in the fate of Lyudmila Alexandrovna. She refused to deceased family life and irrevocably joined a selfless revolutionary activities. He participated in the preparation of the assassination attempt on the governor of Kharkov, Prince Kropotkin, famous for his cruelty and despotism. After the successful execution of a terrorist act Grigory Goldenberg she was forced to go abroad, although its participation in the act consisted only in the fact that it contained a safe house where Kropotkin developed a plan to assassinate.

For several years, under the name of Akhmatova Pavlova, held in Switzerland, France, Italy and Bulgaria. In 1884 he returned to St. Petersburg, where she was arrested after being denounced and prosecuted. This was the famous "process 14". Among those convicted were three women, including Vera Figner.

At trial, Ludmila behaved courageously and boldly. She refused protection, saying it does not recognize the court competent and can only say that they belong to the party "Narodnaya Volya", for which all the action takes responsibility.

The court on September 28, 1884, she was sentenced to death. From filing a petition for pardon Lyudmila flatly refused. Waiting in death row sentence, she wrote:

"My punishment is more useful than my mediocre work. Earlier or later, will push many to replace one of my dying powers ... Now, logically I should wish with all my heart it is executed as the actual preaching my beliefs ... Even the fact of the execution of a woman without a crime for one conviction was bylishney severe drop in the cup of patience the public. "

"Royal favor" death sentence was commuted sentence to be served in one of the worst prisons - Schlusselburg. October 12, along with other prisoners was transferred to the Schlisselburg fortress placed in solitary confinement and in the "living tomb" contained almost 13 years.

V.N.Figner wrote about it in his memoirs:

"The mission and the role of Ludmila Alexandrovna was great, and many hearts forever imprinted her image and preserves the memory of her hot, full of gratitude ... Beautiful soul, Ludmila had and beautiful appearance. She was quite tall, very slim. The dark, slightly curly hair ponderous scythe fell on his back. Perfect complexion and soft Slavic features with eyebrows conducted a broad stroke. Well-defined mouth and marvelous brown eyes, compelling in moments of seriousness and sadness. "

In 1896, on the occasion of the coronation of Nicholas II, she was released from Shlisselburg and sent into exile on Sakhalin. Saying good-bye to their fellow-shlisselburzhtsami, she received a farewell letter, which was dedicated to her a poem written by Nikolai Morozov, a famous revolutionary who was not only for her fellow prisoners, but also a teacher, a great friend.

Full participation and greeting

Among the silence and darkness,

She went as an angel of light,

Under the arches of the gloomy prison.

There was a charming force

In the shower lovely and lively,

And the life she updated us

His spiritual purity ...

In a remote prison, she suffered

Among the violence and evil,

Then he left and did not recognize,

How many took the light.

There is a world of the soul - to know them

Only in the days of persecution and loss,

But the world is blessing for them

And life for them would be happy to give!

November 23, 1896 Lyudmila Volkenshtein was transferred to the Peter and Paul Fortress, and stayed there until March 1897, awaiting shipment to Odessa. Here, in St. Petersburg, took an exciting meeting with the nineteen-year son, who studied at the University of St. Petersburg, who was 2 years old when she, in order to avoid arrest, left Russia.

In March 1897 in the transfer prison in Odessa, Alexander and Lyudmila Volkenshtein met after a long separation. He later wrote in his memoirs: "I could not look enough at cute facial features, became so serious, with a pronounced stamp designed, through suffering." He made a firm decision to go with Lyudmila Sakhalin, leaving his new wife.

November 2, 1897, after 52 days of hard sea route on the steamer "Yaroslavl" Lyudmila with a group of convicts arrived in Sakhalin port of Korsakov. She moved in with the doctor N.V.Kirillova, whose family found shelter and understanding. Having a medical assistant education and practical experience gained in the work place Korsakov hospital. In addition, she was in charge of the pharmacy.

Lyudmila quickly moved closer to the convicts. Attention and sympathy, which she radiated, have created a new, previously unfamiliar to convicts, welcoming environment in the department of the hospital. Here, it all fell in love with, was not called by name and patronymic, but simply Ludmila or angel. In the spring of 1899 after a five-month long way to come Korsakov Alexander Volkenshtein. Soon, he started to work in the position of epidemiological physician, then worked as head of the infirmary at the prison. In 1900, Ludmila and Alexander were forced to move to Aleksandrovsk, since due to the humane and democratic dialogue with patients, convicts, they have developed hostile relations with the prison authorities.

Great moral assistance Sakhalin life were the letters of friends and associates. Alexander corresponded with Leo Tolstoy, familiarity with which was held in January 1894

After much hassle, received permission to leave, in September 1902 the couple moved to Vladivostok Volkenshtein. Dr. Volkenshtein became the organizer of the Medical Service and the first sanitary doctor of the city of Vladivostok. Lyudmila led an active public work. When war broke out with Japan and Vladivostok began to receive a large number of wounded, dramatically increased the demand for health care workers, Ludmila went to work as a medical assistant. Together with Alexander Alexandrovich they organized courses nurses.

After the war ended in Vladivostok was restless. Particularly tense was the situation after the publication of the manifesto October 17, 1905, the city held frequent meetings and rallies, were created various associations and unions. An active role in public life played Vladivostok Physicians Union, a prominent figure of which was Alexander. All social activity in the city during this rough time organized and directed the "Union of Unions", which was formed as a union of all the trade unions. Meeting of the "Union of Unions" often took place in the Museum Society for the Study of the Amur region. Ludmila here on numerous occasions condemned the tsarist policy in the Russian-Japanese War, which resulted in the deaths of a large number of soldiers and sailors.

January 10, 1906 at the circus Boroviksa outside the First Marine held wide meeting, where for the last time Lyudmila acted Volkenshtein. After the meeting, its participants a great column with a brass band went to the headquarters building of the fortress at the Station Square. When the demonstrators gathered on the square on three sides by machine gun fire hit him. The shelling began without warning, straight in the face. Among the first was dead Lyudmila Volkenshtein.